##### Pandemic Populism: Facebook Pages of Alternative News Media and the Corona Crisis -- A Computational Content Analysis
###### Svenja Boberg, Thorsten Quandt, Tim Schatto-Eckrodt, Lena Frischlich

The COVID-19 pandemic has not only had severe political, economic, and societal effects, it has also affected media and communication systems in unprecedented ways. While traditional journalistic media has tried to adapt to the rapidly evolving situation, alternative news media on the Internet have given the events their own ideological spin. Such voices have been criticized for furthering societal confusion and spreading potentially dangerous "fake news" or conspiracy theories via social media and other online channels. The current study analyzes the factual basis of such fears in an initial computational content analysis of alternative news media's output on Facebook during the early Corona crisis, based on a large German data set from January to the second half of March 2020. Using computational content analysis, methods, reach, interactions, actors, and topics of the messages were examined, as well as the use of fabricated news and conspiracy theories. The analysis revealed that the alternative news media stay true to message patterns and ideological foundations identified in prior research. While they do not spread obvious lies, they are predominantly sharing overly critical, even anti-systemic messages, opposing the view of the mainstream news media and the political establishment. With this pandemic populism, they contribute to a contradictory, menacing, and distrusting worldview, as portrayed in detail in this analysis.

##### Evolving Normalization-Activation Layers
###### Hanxiao Liu, Andrew Brock, Karen Simonyan, Quoc V. Le

Normalization layers and activation functions are critical components in deep neural networks that frequently co-locate with each other. Instead of designing them separately, we unify them into a single computation graph, and evolve its structure starting from low-level primitives. Our layer search algorithm leads to the discovery of EvoNorms, a set of new normalization-activation layers that go beyond existing design patterns. Several of these layers enjoy the property of being independent from the batch statistics. Our experiments show that EvoNorms not only excel on a variety of image classification models including ResNets, MobileNets and EfficientNets, but also transfer well to Mask R-CNN for instance segmentation and BigGAN for image synthesis, outperforming BatchNorm and GroupNorm based layers by a significant margin in many cases.

##### Evaluating NLP Models via Contrast Sets
###### Matt Gardner, Yoav Artzi, Victoria Basmova, Jonathan Berant, Ben Bogin, Sihao Chen, Pradeep Dasigi, Dheeru Dua, Yanai Elazar, Ananth Gottumukkala, Nitish Gupta, Hanna Hajishirzi, Gabriel Ilharco, Daniel Khashabi, Kevin Lin, Jiangming Liu, Nelson F. Liu, Phoebe Mulcaire, Qiang Ning, Sameer Singh, Noah A. Smith, Sanjay Subramanian, Reut Tsarfaty, Eric Wallace, Ally Zhang, Ben Zhou

Standard test sets for supervised learning evaluate in-distribution generalization. Unfortunately, when a dataset has systematic gaps (e.g., annotation artifacts), these evaluations are misleading: a model can learn simple decision rules that perform well on the test set but do not capture a dataset's intended capabilities. We propose a new annotation paradigm for NLP that helps to close systematic gaps in the test data. In particular, after a dataset is constructed, we recommend that the dataset authors manually perturb the test instances in small but meaningful ways that (typically) change the gold label, creating contrast sets. Contrast sets provide a local view of a model's decision boundary, which can be used to more accurately evaluate a model's true linguistic capabilities. We demonstrate the efficacy of contrast sets by creating them for 10 diverse NLP datasets (e.g., DROP reading comprehension, UD parsing, IMDb sentiment analysis). Although our contrast sets are not explicitly adversarial, model performance is significantly lower on them than on the original test sets---up to 25\% in some cases. We release our contrast sets as new evaluation benchmarks and encourage future dataset construction efforts to follow similar annotation processes.

##### Self-Supervised Scene De-occlusion
###### Xiaohang Zhan, Xingang Pan, Bo Dai, Ziwei Liu, Dahua Lin, Chen Change Loy

Natural scene understanding is a challenging task, particularly when encountering images of multiple objects that are partially occluded. This obstacle is given rise by varying object ordering and positioning. Existing scene understanding paradigms are able to parse only the visible parts, resulting in incomplete and unstructured scene interpretation. In this paper, we investigate the problem of scene de-occlusion, which aims to recover the underlying occlusion ordering and complete the invisible parts of occluded objects. We make the first attempt to address the problem through a novel and unified framework that recovers hidden scene structures without ordering and amodal annotations as supervisions. This is achieved via Partial Completion Network (PCNet)-mask (M) and -content (C), that learn to recover fractions of object masks and contents, respectively, in a self-supervised manner. Based on PCNet-M and PCNet-C, we devise a novel inference scheme to accomplish scene de-occlusion, via progressive ordering recovery, amodal completion and content completion. Extensive experiments on real-world scenes demonstrate the superior performance of our approach to other alternatives. Remarkably, our approach that is trained in a self-supervised manner achieves comparable results to fully-supervised methods. The proposed scene de-occlusion framework benefits many applications, including high-quality and controllable image manipulation and scene recomposition (see Fig. 1), as well as the conversion of existing modal mask annotations to amodal mask annotations.

##### GANSpace: Discovering Interpretable GAN Controls
###### Erik Härkönen, Aaron Hertzmann, Jaakko Lehtinen, Sylvain Paris

This paper describes a simple technique to analyze Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) and create interpretable controls for image synthesis, such as change of viewpoint, aging, lighting, and time of day. We identify important latent directions based on Principal Components Analysis (PCA) applied in activation space. Then, we show that interpretable edits can be defined based on layer-wise application of these edit directions. Moreover, we show that BigGAN can be controlled with layer-wise inputs in a StyleGAN-like manner. A user may identify a large number of interpretable controls with these mechanisms. We demonstrate results on GANs from various datasets.

##### Learning Agile Robotic Locomotion Skills by Imitating Animals
###### Xue Bin Peng, Erwin Coumans, Tingnan Zhang, Tsang-Wei Lee, Jie Tan, Sergey Levine

Reproducing the diverse and agile locomotion skills of animals has been a longstanding challenge in robotics. While manually-designed controllers have been able to emulate many complex behaviors, building such controllers involves a time-consuming and difficult development process, often requiring substantial expertise of the nuances of each skill. Reinforcement learning provides an appealing alternative for automating the manual effort involved in the development of controllers. However, designing learning objectives that elicit the desired behaviors from an agent can also require a great deal of skill-specific expertise. In this work, we present an imitation learning system that enables legged robots to learn agile locomotion skills by imitating real-world animals. We show that by leveraging reference motion data, a single learning-based approach is able to automatically synthesize controllers for a diverse repertoire behaviors for legged robots. By incorporating sample efficient domain adaptation techniques into the training process, our system is able to learn adaptive policies in simulation that can then be quickly adapted for real-world deployment. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our system, we train an 18-DoF quadruped robot to perform a variety of agile behaviors ranging from different locomotion gaits to dynamic hops and turns.

##### The Covid19Impact Survey: Assessing the Pulse of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Spain via 24 questions
###### Nuria Oliver, Xavier Barber, Kirsten Roomp, Kristof Roomp

In this paper, we describe the results of analyzing a large-scale survey, called the Covid19Impact survey, to assess citizens feedback on four areas related to the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain: social contact behavior, financial impact, working situation and health status. A total of 24 questions cover the areas of demographics, their home situation, social contact behavior, personal economic impact, their workplace situation and their health. The survey was responded to by 146,728 participants over a period of 44 hours. Such a large response enables us to gain new insights, as well as an unprecedented glimpse at respondents personal experiences and concerns during the current COVID-19 pandemic. From the analysis, we draw 11 implications for the design of public policies related to the management of the COVID-19 pandemic.

##### Learning to See Through Obstructions
###### Yu-Lun Liu, Wei-Sheng Lai, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Yung-Yu Chuang, Jia-Bin Huang

We present a learning-based approach for removing unwanted obstructions, such as window reflections, fence occlusions or raindrops, from a short sequence of images captured by a moving camera. Our method leverages the motion differences between the background and the obstructing elements to recover both layers. Specifically, we alternate between estimating dense optical flow fields of the two layers and reconstructing each layer from the flow-warped images via a deep convolutional neural network. The learning-based layer reconstruction allows us to accommodate potential errors in the flow estimation and brittle assumptions such as brightness consistency. We show that training on synthetically generated data transfers well to real images. Our results on numerous challenging scenarios of reflection and fence removal demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

##### Background Matting: The World is Your Green Screen
###### Soumyadip Sengupta, Vivek Jayaram, Brian Curless, Steve Seitz, Ira Kemelmacher-Shlizerman

We propose a method for creating a matte -- the per-pixel foreground color and alpha -- of a person by taking photos or videos in an everyday setting with a handheld camera. Most existing matting methods require a green screen background or a manually created trimap to produce a good matte. Automatic, trimap-free methods are appearing, but are not of comparable quality. In our trimap free approach, we ask the user to take an additional photo of the background without the subject at the time of capture. This step requires a small amount of foresight but is far less time-consuming than creating a trimap. We train a deep network with an adversarial loss to predict the matte. We first train a matting network with supervised loss on ground truth data with synthetic composites. To bridge the domain gap to real imagery with no labeling, we train another matting network guided by the first network and by a discriminator that judges the quality of composites. We demonstrate results on a wide variety of photos and videos and show significant improvement over the state of the art.

##### State-of-Art-Reviewing: A Radical Proposal to Improve Scientific Publication
###### Samuel Albanie, Jaime Thewmore, Robert McCraith, Joao F. Henriques

Peer review forms the backbone of modern scientific manuscript evaluation. But after two hundred and eighty-nine years of egalitarian service to the scientific community, does this protocol remain fit for purpose in 2020? In this work, we answer this question in the negative (strong reject, high confidence) and propose instead State-Of-the-Art Review (SOAR), a neoteric reviewing pipeline that serves as a 'plug-and-play' replacement for peer review. At the heart of our approach is an interpretation of the review process as a multi-objective, massively distributed and extremely-high-latency optimisation, which we scalarise and solve efficiently for PAC and CMT-optimal solutions. We make the following contributions: (1) We propose a highly scalable, fully automatic methodology for review, drawing inspiration from best-practices from premier computer vision and machine learning conferences; (2) We explore several instantiations of our approach and demonstrate that SOAR can be used to both review prints and pre-review pre-prints; (3) We wander listlessly in vain search of catharsis from our latest rounds of savage CVPR rejections.

##### Flows for simultaneous manifold learning and density estimation
###### Johann Brehmer, Kyle Cranmer

We introduce manifold-modeling flows (MFMFs), a new class of generative models that simultaneously learn the data manifold as well as a tractable probability density on that manifold. Combining aspects of normalizing flows, GANs, autoencoders, and energy-based models, they have the potential to represent data sets with a manifold structure more faithfully and provide handles on dimensionality reduction, denoising, and out-of-distribution detection. We argue why such models should not be trained by maximum likelihood alone and present a new training algorithm that separates manifold and density updates. With two pedagogical examples we demonstrate how manifold-modeling flows let us learn the data manifold and allow for better inference than standard flows in the ambient data space.

##### Suphx: Mastering Mahjong with Deep Reinforcement Learning
###### Junjie Li, Sotetsu Koyamada, Qiwei Ye, Guoqing Liu, Chao Wang, Ruihan Yang, Li Zhao, Tao Qin, Tie-Yan Liu, Hsiao-Wuen Hon

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has achieved great success in many domains, and game AI is widely regarded as its beachhead since the dawn of AI. In recent years, studies on game AI have gradually evolved from relatively simple environments (e.g., perfect-information games such as Go, chess, shogi or two-player imperfect-information games such as heads-up Texas hold'em) to more complex ones (e.g., multi-player imperfect-information games such as multi-player Texas hold'em and StartCraft II). Mahjong is a popular multi-player imperfect-information game worldwide but very challenging for AI research due to its complex playing/scoring rules and rich hidden information. We design an AI for Mahjong, named Suphx, based on deep reinforcement learning with some newly introduced techniques including global reward prediction, oracle guiding, and run-time policy adaptation. Suphx has demonstrated stronger performance than most top human players in terms of stable rank and is rated above 99.99% of all the officially ranked human players in the Tenhou platform. This is the first time that a computer program outperforms most top human players in Mahjong.

##### Neural Communication Systems with Bandwidth-limited Channel
###### Karen Ullrich, Fabio Viola, Danilo Jimenez Rezende

Reliably transmitting messages despite information loss due to a noisy channel is a core problem of information theory. One of the most important aspects of real world communication, e.g. via wifi, is that it may happen at varying levels of information transfer. The bandwidth-limited channel models this phenomenon. In this study we consider learning coding with the bandwidth-limited channel (BWLC). Recently, neural communication models such as variational autoencoders have been studied for the task of source compression. We build upon this work by studying neural communication systems with the BWLC. Specifically,we find three modelling choices that are relevant under expected information loss. First, instead of separating the sub-tasks of compression (source coding) and error correction (channel coding), we propose to model both jointly. Framing the problem as a variational learning problem, we conclude that joint systems outperform their separate counterparts when coding is performed by flexible learnable function approximators such as neural networks. To facilitate learning, we introduce a differentiable and computationally efficient version of the bandwidth-limited channel. Second, we propose a design to model missing information with a prior, and incorporate this into the channel model. Finally, sampling from the joint model is improved by introducing auxiliary latent variables in the decoder. Experimental results justify the validity of our design decisions through improved distortion and FID scores. Second, we propose a design to model missing information with a prior, and incorporate this into the channel model. Finally, sampling from the joint model is improved by introducing auxiliary latent variables in the decoder. Experimental results justify the validity of our design decisions through improved distortion and FID scores.

##### Information-Theoretic Probing with Minimum Description Length
###### Elena Voita, Ivan Titov

To measure how well pretrained representations encode some linguistic property, it is common to use accuracy of a probe, i.e. a classifier trained to predict the property from the representations. Despite widespread adoption of probes, differences in their accuracy fail to adequately reflect differences in representations. For example, they do not substantially favour pretrained representations over randomly initialized ones. Analogously, their accuracy can be similar when probing for genuine linguistic labels and probing for random synthetic tasks. To see reasonable differences in accuracy with respect to these random baselines, previous work had to constrain either the amount of probe training data or its model size. Instead, we propose an alternative to the standard probes, information-theoretic probing with minimum description length (MDL). With MDL probing, training a probe to predict labels is recast as teaching it to effectively transmit the data. Therefore, the measure of interest changes from probe accuracy to the description length of labels given representations. In addition to probe quality, the description length evaluates "the amount of effort" needed to achieve the quality. This amount of effort characterizes either (i) size of a probing model, or (ii) the amount of data needed to achieve the high quality. We consider two methods for estimating MDL which can be easily implemented on top of the standard probing pipelines: variational coding and online coding. We show that these methods agree in results and are more informative and stable than the standard probes.

##### Modeling 3D Shapes by Reinforcement Learning
###### Cheng Lin, Tingxiang Fan, Wenping Wang, Matthias Nießner

We explore how to enable machines to model 3D shapes like human modelers using reinforcement learning (RL). In 3D modeling software like Maya, a modeler usually creates a mesh model in two steps: (1) approximating the shape using a set of primitives; (2) editing the meshes of the primitives to create detailed geometry. Inspired by such artist-based modeling, we propose a two-step neural framework based on RL to learn 3D modeling policies. By taking actions and collecting rewards in an interactive environment, the agents first learn to parse a target shape into primitives and then to edit the geometry. To effectively train the modeling agents, we introduce a novel training algorithm that combines heuristic policy, imitation learning and reinforcement learning. Our experiments show that the agents can learn good policies to produce regular and structure-aware mesh models, which demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed RL framework.

##### Mobile phone data and COVID-19: Missing an opportunity?
###### Nuria Oliver, Emmanuel Letouzé, Harald Sterly, Sébastien Delataille, Marco De Nadai, Bruno Lepri, Renaud Lambiotte, Richard Benjamins, Ciro Cattuto, Vittoria Colizza, Nicolas de Cordes, Samuel P. Fraiberger, Till Koebe, Sune Lehmann, Juan Murillo, Alex Pentland, Phuong N Pham, Frédéric Pivetta, Albert Ali Salah, Jari Saramäki, Samuel V. Scarpino, Michele Tizzoni, Stefaan Verhulst, Patrick Vinck

This paper describes how mobile phone data can guide government and public health authorities in determining the best course of action to control the COVID-19 pandemic and in assessing the effectiveness of control measures such as physical distancing. It identifies key gaps and reasons why this kind of data is only scarcely used, although their value in similar epidemics has proven in a number of use cases. It presents ways to overcome these gaps and key recommendations for urgent action, most notably the establishment of mixed expert groups on national and regional level, and the inclusion and support of governments and public authorities early on. It is authored by a group of experienced data scientists, epidemiologists, demographers and representatives of mobile network operators who jointly put their work at the service of the global effort to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

##### A Survey of Deep Learning for Scientific Discovery
###### Maithra Raghu, Eric Schmidt

Over the past few years, we have seen fundamental breakthroughs in core problems in machine learning, largely driven by advances in deep neural networks. At the same time, the amount of data collected in a wide array of scientific domains is dramatically increasing in both size and complexity. Taken together, this suggests many exciting opportunities for deep learning applications in scientific settings. But a significant challenge to this is simply knowing where to start. The sheer breadth and diversity of different deep learning techniques makes it difficult to determine what scientific problems might be most amenable to these methods, or which specific combination of methods might offer the most promising first approach. In this survey, we focus on addressing this central issue, providing an overview of many widely used deep learning models, spanning visual, sequential and graph structured data, associated tasks and different training methods, along with techniques to use deep learning with less data and better interpret these complex models --- two central considerations for many scientific use cases. We also include overviews of the full design process, implementation tips, and links to a plethora of tutorials, research summaries and open-sourced deep learning pipelines and pretrained models, developed by the community. We hope that this survey will help accelerate the use of deep learning across different scientific domains.

##### Spatio-Temporal Handwriting Imitation
###### Martin Mayr, Martin Stumpf, Anguelos Nikolaou, Mathias Seuret, Andreas Maier, Vincent Christlein

Most people think that their handwriting is unique and cannot be imitated by machines, especially not using completely new content. Current cursive handwriting synthesis is visually limited or needs user interaction. We show that subdividing the process into smaller subtasks makes it possible to imitate someone's handwriting with a high chance to be visually indistinguishable for humans. Therefore, a given handwritten sample will be used as the target style. This sample is transferred to an online sequence. Then, a method for online handwriting synthesis is used to produce a new realistic-looking text primed with the online input sequence. This new text is then rendered and style-adapted to the input pen. We show the effectiveness of the pipeline by generating in- and out-of-vocabulary handwritten samples that are validated in a comprehensive user study. Additionally, we show that also a typical writer identification system can partially be fooled by the created fake handwritings.

##### Deep Line Art Video Colorization with a Few References
###### Min Shi, Jia-Qi Zhang, Shu-Yu Chen, Lin Gao, Yu-Kun Lai, Fang-Lue Zhang

Coloring line art images based on the colors of reference images is an important stage in animation production, which is time-consuming and tedious. In this paper, we propose a deep architecture to automatically color line art videos with the same color style as the given reference images. Our framework consists of a color transform network and a temporal constraint network. The color transform network takes the target line art images as well as the line art and color images of one or more reference images as input, and generates corresponding target color images. To cope with larger differences between the target line art image and reference color images, our architecture utilizes non-local similarity matching to determine the region correspondences between the target image and the reference images, which are used to transform the local color information from the references to the target. To ensure global color style consistency, we further incorporate Adaptive Instance Normalization (AdaIN) with the transformation parameters obtained from a style embedding vector that describes the global color style of the references, extracted by an embedder. The temporal constraint network takes the reference images and the target image together in chronological order, and learns the spatiotemporal features through 3D convolution to ensure the temporal consistency of the target image and the reference image. Our model can achieve even better coloring results by fine-tuning the parameters with only a small amount of samples when dealing with an animation of a new style. To evaluate our method, we build a line art coloring dataset. Experiments show that our method achieves the best performance on line art video coloring compared to the state-of-the-art methods and other baselines.

##### Deformable Style Transfer
###### Sunnie S. Y. Kim, Nicholas Kolkin, Jason Salavon, Gregory Shakhnarovich

Geometry and shape are fundamental aspects of visual style. Existing style transfer methods focus on texture-like components of style, ignoring geometry. We propose deformable style transfer (DST), an optimization-based approach that integrates texture and geometry style transfer. Our method is the first to allow geometry-aware stylization not restricted to any domain and not requiring training sets of matching style/content pairs. We demonstrate our method on a diverse set of content and style images including portraits, animals, objects, scenes, and paintings.

##### Elle: Inferring Isolation Anomalies from Experimental Observations
###### Kyle Kingsbury, Peter Alvaro

Users who care about their data store it in databases, which (at least in principle) guarantee some form of transactional isolation. However, experience shows [Kleppmann 2019, Kingsbury and Patella 2019a] that many databases do not provide the isolation guarantees they claim. With the recent proliferation of new distributed databases, demand has grown for checkers that can, by generating client workloads and injecting faults, produce anomalies that witness a violation of a stated guarantee. An ideal checker would be sound (no false positives), efficient (polynomial in history length and concurrency), effective (finding violations in real databases), general (analyzing many patterns of transactions), and informative (justifying the presence of an anomaly with understandable counterexamples). Sadly, we are aware of no checkers that satisfy these goals. We present Elle: a novel checker which infers an Adya-style dependency graph between client-observed transactions. It does so by carefully selecting database objects and operations when generating histories, so as to ensure that the results of database reads reveal information about their version history. Elle can detect every anomaly in Adya et al's formalism [Adya et al. 2000] (except for predicates), discriminate between them, and provide concise explanations of each. This paper makes the following contributions: we present Elle, demonstrate its soundness, measure its efficiency against the current state of the art, and give evidence of its effectiveness via a case study of four real databases.

##### Meta Pseudo Labels
###### Hieu Pham, Qizhe Xie, Zihang Dai, Quoc V. Le

Many training algorithms of a deep neural network can be interpreted as minimizing the cross entropy loss between the prediction made by the network and a target distribution. In supervised learning, this target distribution is typically the ground-truth one-hot vector. In semi-supervised learning, this target distribution is typically generated by a pre-trained teacher model to train the main network. In this work, instead of using such predefined target distributions, we show that learning to adjust the target distribution based on the learning state of the main network can lead to better performances. In particular, we propose an efficient meta-learning algorithm, which encourages the teacher to adjust the target distributions of training examples in the manner that improves the learning of the main network. The teacher is updated by policy gradients computed by evaluating the main network on a held-out validation set. Our experiments demonstrate substantial improvements over strong baselines and establish state-ofthe-art performance on CIFAR-10, SVHN, and ImageNet. For instance, with ResNets on small datasets, we achieve 96.1% on CIFAR-10 with 4,000 labeled examples and 73.9% top-1 on ImageNet with 10% examples. Meanwhile, with EfficientNet on full datasets plus extra unlabeled data, we attain 98.6% accuracy on CIFAR-10 and 86.9% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet.

##### Neural Contours: Learning to Draw Lines from 3D Shapes
###### Difan Liu, Mohamed Nabail, Aaron Hertzmann, Evangelos Kalogerakis

This paper introduces a method for learning to generate line drawings from 3D models. Our architecture incorporates a differentiable module operating on geometric features of the 3D model, and an image-based module operating on view-based shape representations. At test time, geometric and view-based reasoning are combined with the help of a neural module to create a line drawing. The model is trained on a large number of crowdsourced comparisons of line drawings. Experiments demonstrate that our method achieves significant improvements in line drawing over the state-of-the-art when evaluated on standard benchmarks, resulting in drawings that are comparable to those produced by experienced human artists.

##### NeRF: Representing Scenes as Neural Radiance Fields for View Synthesis
###### Ben Mildenhall, Pratul P. Srinivasan, Matthew Tancik, Jonathan T. Barron, Ravi Ramamoorthi, Ren Ng

We present a method that achieves state-of-the-art results for synthesizing novel views of complex scenes by optimizing an underlying continuous volumetric scene function using a sparse set of input views. Our algorithm represents a scene using a fully-connected (non-convolutional) deep network, whose input is a single continuous 5D coordinate (spatial location $(x,y,z)$ and viewing direction $(\theta, \phi)$) and whose output is the volume density and view-dependent emitted radiance at that spatial location. We synthesize views by querying 5D coordinates along camera rays and use classic volume rendering techniques to project the output colors and densities into an image. Because volume rendering is naturally differentiable, the only input required to optimize our representation is a set of images with known camera poses. We describe how to effectively optimize neural radiance fields to render photorealistic novel views of scenes with complicated geometry and appearance, and demonstrate results that outperform prior work on neural rendering and view synthesis. View synthesis results are best viewed as videos, so we urge readers to view our supplementary video for convincing comparisons.

##### Enhanced POET: Open-Ended Reinforcement Learning through Unbounded Invention of Learning Challenges and their Solutions
###### Rui Wang, Joel Lehman, Aditya Rawal, Jiale Zhi, Yulun Li, Jeff Clune, Kenneth O. Stanley

Creating open-ended algorithms, which generate their own never-ending stream of novel and appropriately challenging learning opportunities, could help to automate and accelerate progress in machine learning. A recent step in this direction is the Paired Open-Ended Trailblazer (POET), an algorithm that generates and solves its own challenges, and allows solutions to goal-switch between challenges to avoid local optima. However, the original POET was unable to demonstrate its full creative potential because of limitations of the algorithm itself and because of external issues including a limited problem space and lack of a universal progress measure. Importantly, both limitations pose impediments not only for POET, but for the pursuit of open-endedness in general. Here we introduce and empirically validate two new innovations to the original algorithm, as well as two external innovations designed to help elucidate its full potential. Together, these four advances enable the most open-ended algorithmic demonstration to date. The algorithmic innovations are (1) a domain-general measure of how meaningfully novel new challenges are, enabling the system to potentially create and solve interesting challenges endlessly, and (2) an efficient heuristic for determining when agents should goal-switch from one problem to another (helping open-ended search better scale). Outside the algorithm itself, to enable a more definitive demonstration of open-endedness, we introduce (3) a novel, more flexible way to encode environmental challenges, and (4) a generic measure of the extent to which a system continues to exhibit open-ended innovation. Enhanced POET produces a diverse range of sophisticated behaviors that solve a wide range of environmental challenges, many of which cannot be solved through other means.