December 06, 2019
Your Classifier is Secretly an Energy Based Model and You Should Treat it Like One
Will Grathwohl, Kuan-Chieh Wang, Jörn-Henrik Jacobsen, David Duvenaud, Mohammad Norouzi, Kevin Swersky

We propose to reinterpret a standard discriminative classifier of p(y|x) as an energy based model for the joint distribution p(x,y). In this setting, the standard class probabilities can be easily computed as well as unnormalized values of p(x) and p(x|y). Within this framework, standard discriminative architectures may beused and the model can also be trained on unlabeled data. We demonstrate that energy based training of the joint distribution improves calibration, robustness, andout-of-distribution detection while also enabling our models to generate samplesrivaling the quality of recent GAN approaches. We improve upon recently proposed techniques for scaling up the training of energy based models and presentan approach which adds little overhead compared to standard classification training. Our approach is the first to achieve performance rivaling the state-of-the-artin both generative and discriminative learning within one hybrid model.

December 05, 2019
Training Agents using Upside-Down Reinforcement Learning
Rupesh Kumar Srivastava, Pranav Shyam, Filipe Mutz, Wojciech Jaśkowski, Jürgen Schmidhuber

Traditional Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms either predict rewards with value functions or maximize them using policy search. We study an alternative: Upside-Down Reinforcement Learning (Upside-Down RL or UDRL), that solves RL problems primarily using supervised learning techniques. Many of its main principles are outlined in a companion report [34]. Here we present the first concrete implementation of UDRL and demonstrate its feasibility on certain episodic learning problems. Experimental results show that its performance can be surprisingly competitive with, and even exceed that of traditional baseline algorithms developed over decades of research.

Neural Tangents: Fast and Easy Infinite Neural Networks in Python
Roman Novak, Lechao Xiao, Jiri Hron, Jaehoon Lee, Alexander A. Alemi, Jascha Sohl-Dickstein, Samuel S. Schoenholz

Neural Tangents is a library designed to enable research into infinite-width neural networks. It provides a high-level API for specifying complex and hierarchical neural network architectures. These networks can then be trained and evaluated either at finite-width as usual or in their infinite-width limit. Infinite-width networks can be trained analytically using exact Bayesian inference or using gradient descent via the Neural Tangent Kernel. Additionally, Neural Tangents provides tools to study gradient descent training dynamics of wide but finite networks in either function space or weight space. The entire library runs out-of-the-box on CPU, GPU, or TPU. All computations can be automatically distributed over multiple accelerators with near-linear scaling in the number of devices. Neural Tangents is available at www.github.com/google/neural-tangents. We also provide an accompanying interactive Colab notebook.

Deep Ensembles: A Loss Landscape Perspective
Stanislav Fort, Huiyi Hu, Balaji Lakshminarayanan

Deep ensembles have been empirically shown to be a promising approach for improving accuracy, uncertainty and out-of-distribution robustness of deep learning models. While deep ensembles were theoretically motivated by the bootstrap, non-bootstrap ensembles trained with just random initialization also perform well in practice, which suggests that there could be other explanations for why deep ensembles work well. Bayesian neural networks, which learn distributions over the parameters of the network, are theoretically well-motivated by Bayesian principles, but do not perform as well as deep ensembles in practice, particularly under dataset shift. One possible explanation for this gap between theory and practice is that popular scalable approximate Bayesian methods tend to focus on a single mode, whereas deep ensembles tend to explore diverse modes in function space. We investigate this hypothesis by building on recent work on understanding the loss landscape of neural networks and adding our own exploration to measure the similarity of functions in the space of predictions. Our results show that random initializations explore entirely different modes, while functions along an optimization trajectory or sampled from the subspace thereof cluster within a single mode predictions-wise, while often deviating significantly in the weight space. We demonstrate that while low-loss connectors between modes exist, they are not connected in the space of predictions. Developing the concept of the diversity--accuracy plane, we show that the decorrelation power of random initializations is unmatched by popular subspace sampling methods.

Computational Mirrors: Blind Inverse Light Transport by Deep Matrix Factorization
Miika Aittala, Prafull Sharma, Lukas Murmann, Adam B. Yedidia, Gregory W. Wornell, William T. Freeman, Fredo Durand

We recover a video of the motion taking place in a hidden scene by observing changes in indirect illumination in a nearby uncalibrated visible region. We solve this problem by factoring the observed video into a matrix product between the unknown hidden scene video and an unknown light transport matrix. This task is extremely ill-posed, as any non-negative factorization will satisfy the data. Inspired by recent work on the Deep Image Prior, we parameterize the factor matrices using randomly initialized convolutional neural networks trained in a one-off manner, and show that this results in decompositions that reflect the true motion in the hidden scene.

Normalizing Flows for Probabilistic Modeling and Inference
George Papamakarios, Eric Nalisnick, Danilo Jimenez Rezende, Shakir Mohamed, Balaji Lakshminarayanan

Normalizing flows provide a general mechanism for defining expressive probability distributions, only requiring the specification of a (usually simple) base distribution and a series of bijective transformations. There has been much recent work on normalizing flows, ranging from improving their expressive power to expanding their application. We believe the field has now matured and is in need of a unified perspective. In this review, we attempt to provide such a perspective by describing flows through the lens of probabilistic modeling and inference. We place special emphasis on the fundamental principles of flow design, and discuss foundational topics such as expressive power and computational trade-offs. We also broaden the conceptual framing of flows by relating them to more general probability transformations. Lastly, we summarize the use of flows for tasks such as generative modeling, approximate inference, and supervised learning.

Combining Q-Learning and Search with Amortized Value Estimates
Jessica B. Hamrick, Victor Bapst, Alvaro Sanchez-Gonzalez, Tobias Pfaff, Theophane Weber, Lars Buesing, Peter W. Battaglia

We introduce "Search with Amortized Value Estimates" (SAVE), an approach for combining model-free Q-learning with model-based Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS). In SAVE, a learned prior over state-action values is used to guide MCTS, which estimates an improved set of state-action values. The new Q-estimates are then used in combination with real experience to update the prior. This effectively amortizes the value computation performed by MCTS, resulting in a cooperative relationship between model-free learning and model-based search. SAVE can be implemented on top of any Q-learning agent with access to a model, which we demonstrate by incorporating it into agents that perform challenging physical reasoning tasks and Atari. SAVE consistently achieves higher rewards with fewer training steps, and---in contrast to typical model-based search approaches---yields strong performance with very small search budgets. By combining real experience with information computed during search, SAVE demonstrates that it is possible to improve on both the performance of model-free learning and the computational cost of planning.

December 04, 2019
Fantastic Generalization Measures and Where to Find Them
Yiding Jiang, Behnam Neyshabur, Hossein Mobahi, Dilip Krishnan, Samy Bengio

Generalization of deep networks has been of great interest in recent years, resulting in a number of theoretically and empirically motivated complexity measures. However, most papers proposing such measures study only a small set of models, leaving open the question of whether the conclusion drawn from those experiments would remain valid in other settings. We present the first large scale study of generalization in deep networks. We investigate more then 40 complexity measures taken from both theoretical bounds and empirical studies. We train over 10,000 convolutional networks by systematically varying commonly used hyperparameters. Hoping to uncover potentially causal relationships between each measure and generalization, we analyze carefully controlled experiments and show surprising failures of some measures as well as promising measures for further research.

Self-Supervised Learning of Pretext-Invariant Representations
Ishan Misra, Laurens van der Maaten

The goal of self-supervised learning from images is to construct image representations that are semantically meaningful via pretext tasks that do not require semantic annotations for a large training set of images. Many pretext tasks lead to representations that are covariant with image transformations. We argue that, instead, semantic representations ought to be invariant under such transformations. Specifically, we develop Pretext-Invariant Representation Learning (PIRL, pronounced as "pearl") that learns invariant representations based on pretext tasks. We use PIRL with a commonly used pretext task that involves solving jigsaw puzzles. We find that PIRL substantially improves the semantic quality of the learned image representations. Our approach sets a new state-of-the-art in self-supervised learning from images on several popular benchmarks for self-supervised learning. Despite being unsupervised, PIRL outperforms supervised pre-training in learning image representations for object detection. Altogether, our results demonstrate the potential of self-supervised learning of image representations with good invariance properties.

StarGAN v2: Diverse Image Synthesis for Multiple Domains
Yunjey Choi, Youngjung Uh, Jaejun Yoo, Jung-Woo Ha

A good image-to-image translation model should learn a mapping between different visual domains while satisfying the following properties: 1) diversity of generated images and 2) scalability over multiple domains. Existing methods address either of the issues, having limited diversity or multiple models for all domains. We propose StarGAN v2, a single framework that tackles both and shows significantly improved results over the baselines. Experiments on CelebA-HQ and a new animal faces dataset (AFHQ) validate our superiority in terms of visual quality, diversity, and scalability. To better assess image-to-image translation models, we release AFHQ, high-quality animal faces with large inter- and intra-domain differences. The code, pretrained models, and dataset can be found at https://github.com/clovaai/stargan-v2.

December 03, 2019
PyTorch: An Imperative Style, High-Performance Deep Learning Library
Adam Paszke, Sam Gross, Francisco Massa, Adam Lerer, James Bradbury, Gregory Chanan, Trevor Killeen, Zeming Lin, Natalia Gimelshein, Luca Antiga, Alban Desmaison, Andreas Köpf, Edward Yang, Zach DeVito, Martin Raison, Alykhan Tejani, Sasank Chilamkurthy, Benoit Steiner, Lu Fang, Junjie Bai, Soumith Chintala

Deep learning frameworks have often focused on either usability or speed, but not both. PyTorch is a machine learning library that shows that these two goals are in fact compatible: it provides an imperative and Pythonic programming style that supports code as a model, makes debugging easy and is consistent with other popular scientific computing libraries, while remaining efficient and supporting hardware accelerators such as GPUs. In this paper, we detail the principles that drove the implementation of PyTorch and how they are reflected in its architecture. We emphasize that every aspect of PyTorch is a regular Python program under the full control of its user. We also explain how the careful and pragmatic implementation of the key components of its runtime enables them to work together to achieve compelling performance. We demonstrate the efficiency of individual subsystems, as well as the overall speed of PyTorch on several common benchmarks.

Dream to Control: Learning Behaviors by Latent Imagination
Danijar Hafner, Timothy Lillicrap, Jimmy Ba, Mohammad Norouzi

Learned world models summarize an agent's experience to facilitate learning complex behaviors. While learning world models from high-dimensional sensory inputs is becoming feasible through deep learning, there are many potential ways for deriving behaviors from them. We present Dreamer, a reinforcement learning agent that solves long-horizon tasks from images purely by latent imagination. We efficiently learn behaviors by propagating analytic gradients of learned state values back through trajectories imagined in the compact state space of a learned world model. On 20 challenging visual control tasks, Dreamer exceeds existing approaches in data-efficiency, computation time, and final performance.

December 02, 2019
Deep Learning for Symbolic Mathematics
Guillaume Lample, François Charton

Neural networks have a reputation for being better at solving statistical or approximate problems than at performing calculations or working with symbolic data. In this paper, we show that they can be surprisingly good at more elaborated tasks in mathematics, such as symbolic integration and solving differential equations. We propose a syntax for representing mathematical problems, and methods for generating large datasets that can be used to train sequence-to-sequence models. We achieve results that outperform commercial Computer Algebra Systems such as Matlab or Mathematica.

LOGAN: Latent Optimisation for Generative Adversarial Networks
Yan Wu, Jeff Donahue, David Balduzzi, Karen Simonyan, Timothy Lillicrap

Training generative adversarial networks requires balancing of delicate adversarial dynamics. Even with careful tuning, training may diverge or end up in a bad equilibrium with dropped modes. In this work, we introduce a new form of latent optimisation inspired by the CS-GAN and show that it improves adversarial dynamics by enhancing interactions between the discriminator and the generator. We develop supporting theoretical analysis from the perspectives of differentiable games and stochastic approximation. Our experiments demonstrate that latent optimisation can significantly improve GAN training, obtaining state-of-the-art performance for the ImageNet (128 x 128) dataset. Our model achieves an Inception Score (IS) of 148 and an Fr\'echet Inception Distance (FID) of 3.4, an improvement of 17% and 32% in IS and FID respectively, compared with the baseline BigGAN-deep model with the same architecture and number of parameters.

November 29, 2019
What's Hidden in a Randomly Weighted Neural Network?
Vivek Ramanujan, Mitchell Wortsman, Aniruddha Kembhavi, Ali Farhadi, Mohammad Rastegari

Training a neural network is synonymous with learning the values of the weights. In contrast, we demonstrate that randomly weighted neural networks contain subnetworks which achieve impressive performance without ever training the weight values. Hidden in a randomly weighted Wide ResNet-50 we show that there is a subnetwork (with random weights) that is smaller than, but matches the performance of a ResNet-34 trained on ImageNet. Not only do these "untrained subnetworks" exist, but we provide an algorithm to effectively find them. We empirically show that as randomly weighted neural networks with fixed weights grow wider and deeper, an "untrained subnetwork" approaches a network with learned weights in accuracy.

Procedural Content Generation: From Automatically Generating Game Levels to Increasing Generality in Machine Learning
Sebastian Risi, Julian Togelius

The idea behind procedural content generation (PCG) in games is to create content automatically, using algorithms, instead of relying on user-designed content. While PCG approaches have traditionally focused on creating content for video games, they are now being applied to all kinds of virtual environments, thereby enabling training of machine learning systems that are significantly more general. For example, PCG's ability to generate never-ending streams of new levels has allowed DeepMind's Capture the Flag agent to reach beyond human-level-performance. Additionally, PCG-inspired methods such as domain randomization enabled OpenAI's robot arm to learn to manipulate objects with unprecedented dexterity. Level generation in 2D arcade games has also illuminated some shortcomings of standard deep RL methods, suggesting potential ways to train more general policies. This Review looks at key aspect of PCG approaches, including its ability to (1) enable new video games (such as No Man's Sky), (2) create open-ended learning environments, (3) combat overfitting in supervised and reinforcement learning tasks, and (4) create better benchmarks that could ultimately spur the development of better learning algorithms. We hope this article can introduce the broader machine learning community to PCG, which we believe will be a critical tool in creating a more general machine intelligence.

November 28, 2019
GitHub Typo Corpus: A Large-Scale Multilingual Dataset of Misspellings and Grammatical Errors
Masato Hagiwara, Masato Mita

The lack of large-scale datasets has been a major hindrance to the development of NLP tasks such as spelling correction and grammatical error correction (GEC). As a complementary new resource for these tasks, we present the GitHub Typo Corpus, a large-scale, multilingual dataset of misspellings and grammatical errors along with their corrections harvested from GitHub, a large and popular platform for hosting and sharing git repositories. The dataset, which we have made publicly available, contains more than 350k edits and 65M characters in more than 15 languages, making it the largest dataset of misspellings to date. We also describe our process for filtering true typo edits based on learned classifiers on a small annotated subset, and demonstrate that typo edits can be identified with F1 ~ 0.9 using a very simple classifier with only three features. The detailed analyses of the dataset show that existing spelling correctors merely achieve an F-measure of approx. 0.5, suggesting that the dataset serves as a new, rich source of spelling errors that complement existing datasets.

November 27, 2019
Your Local GAN: Designing Two Dimensional Local Attention Mechanisms for Generative Models
Giannis Daras, Augustus Odena, Han Zhang, Alexandros G. Dimakis

We introduce a new local sparse attention layer that preserves two-dimensional geometry and locality. We show that by just replacing the dense attention layer of SAGAN with our construction, we obtain very significant FID, Inception score and pure visual improvements. FID score is improved from $18.65$ to $15.94$ on ImageNet, keeping all other parameters the same. The sparse attention patterns that we propose for our new layer are designed using a novel information theoretic criterion that uses information flow graphs. We also present a novel way to invert Generative Adversarial Networks with attention. Our method extracts from the attention layer of the discriminator a saliency map, which we use to construct a new loss function for the inversion. This allows us to visualize the newly introduced attention heads and show that they indeed capture interesting aspects of two-dimensional geometry of real images.

Contrastive Learning of Structured World Models
Thomas Kipf, Elise van der Pol, Max Welling

A structured understanding of our world in terms of objects, relations, and hierarchies is an important component of human cognition. Learning such a structured world model from raw sensory data remains a challenge. As a step towards this goal, we introduce Contrastively-trained Structured World Models (C-SWMs). C-SWMs utilize a contrastive approach for representation learning in environments with compositional structure. We structure each state embedding as a set of object representations and their relations, modeled by a graph neural network. This allows objects to be discovered from raw pixel observations without direct supervision as part of the learning process. We evaluate C-SWMs on compositional environments involving multiple interacting objects that can be manipulated independently by an agent, simple Atari games, and a multi-object physics simulation. Our experiments demonstrate that C-SWMs can overcome limitations of models based on pixel reconstruction and outperform typical representatives of this model class in highly structured environments, while learning interpretable object-based representations.

November 26, 2019
MixNMatch: Multifactor Disentanglement and Encodingfor Conditional Image Generation
Yuheng Li, Krishna Kumar Singh, Utkarsh Ojha, Yong Jae Lee

We present MixNMatch, a conditional generative model that learns to disentangle and encode background, object pose, shape, and texture from real images with minimal supervision, for mix-and-match image generation. We build upon FineGAN, an unconditional generative model, to learn the desired disentanglement and image generator, and leverage adversarial joint image-code distribution matching to learn the latent factor encoders. MixNMatch requires bounding boxes during training to model background, but requires no other supervision. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate MixNMatch's ability to accurately disentangle, encode, and combine multiple factors for mix-and-match image generation, including sketch2color, cartoon2img, and img2gif applications. Our code/models/demo can be found at https://github.com/Yuheng-Li/MixNMatch

SuperGlue: Learning Feature Matching with Graph Neural Networks
Paul-Edouard Sarlin, Daniel DeTone, Tomasz Malisiewicz, Andrew Rabinovich

This paper introduces SuperGlue, a neural network that matches two sets of local features by jointly finding correspondences and rejecting non-matchable points. Assignments are estimated by solving a differentiable optimal transport problem, whose costs are predicted by a graph neural network. We introduce a flexible context aggregation mechanism based on attention, enabling SuperGlue to reason about the underlying 3D scene and feature assignments jointly. Compared to traditional, hand-designed heuristics, our technique learns priors over geometric transformations and regularities of the 3D world through end-to-end training from image pairs. SuperGlue outperforms other learned approaches and achieves state-of-the-art results on the task of pose estimation in challenging real-world indoor and outdoor environments. The proposed method performs matching in real-time on a modern GPU and can be readily integrated into modern SfM or SLAM systems.

Single Headed Attention RNN: Stop Thinking With Your Head
Stephen Merity

The leading approaches in language modeling are all obsessed with TV shows of my youth - namely Transformers and Sesame Street. Transformers this, Transformers that, and over here a bonfire worth of GPU-TPU-neuromorphic wafer scale silicon. We opt for the lazy path of old and proven techniques with a fancy crypto inspired acronym: the Single Headed Attention RNN (SHA-RNN). The author's lone goal is to show that the entire field might have evolved a different direction if we had instead been obsessed with a slightly different acronym and slightly different result. We take a previously strong language model based only on boring LSTMs and get it to within a stone's throw of a stone's throw of state-of-the-art byte level language model results on enwik8. This work has undergone no intensive hyperparameter optimization and lived entirely on a commodity desktop machine that made the author's small studio apartment far too warm in the midst of a San Franciscan summer. The final results are achievable in plus or minus 24 hours on a single GPU as the author is impatient. The attention mechanism is also readily extended to large contexts with minimal computation. Take that Sesame Street.

November 25, 2019
Rigging the Lottery: Making All Tickets Winners
Utku Evci, Trevor Gale, Jacob Menick, Pablo Samuel Castro, Erich Elsen

Sparse neural networks have been shown to be more parameter and compute efficient compared to dense networks and in some cases are used to decrease wall clock inference times. There is a large body of work on training dense networks to yield sparse networks for inference. This limits the size of the largest trainable sparse model to that of the largest trainable dense model. In this paper we introduce a method to train sparse neural networks with a fixed parameter count and a fixed computational cost throughout training, without sacrificing accuracy relative to existing dense-to-sparse training methods. Our method updates the topology of the network during training by using parameter magnitudes and infrequent gradient calculations. We show that this approach requires fewer floating-point operations (FLOPs) to achieve a given level of accuracy compared to prior techniques. Importantly, by adjusting the topology it can start from any initialization - not just "lucky" ones. We demonstrate state-of-the-art sparse training results with ResNet-50, MobileNet v1 and MobileNet v2 on the ImageNet-2012 dataset, WideResNets on the CIFAR-10 dataset and RNNs on the WikiText-103 dataset. Finally, we provide some insights into why allowing the topology to change during the optimization can overcome local minima encountered when the topology remains static.

Oops! Predicting Unintentional Action in Video
Dave Epstein, Boyuan Chen, Carl Vondrick

From just a short glance at a video, we can often tell whether a person's action is intentional or not. Can we train a model to recognize this? We introduce a dataset of in-the-wild videos of unintentional action, as well as a suite of tasks for recognizing, localizing, and anticipating its onset. We train a supervised neural network as a baseline and analyze its performance compared to human consistency on the tasks. We also investigate self-supervised representations that leverage natural signals in our dataset, and show the effectiveness of an approach that uses the intrinsic speed of video to perform competitively with highly-supervised pretraining. However, a significant gap between machine and human performance remains. The project website is available at https://oops.cs.columbia.edu

November 24, 2019
Causality for Machine Learning
Bernhard Schölkopf

Graphical causal inference as pioneered by Judea Pearl arose from research on artificial intelligence (AI), and for a long time had little connection to the field of machine learning. This article discusses where links have been and should be established, introducing key concepts along the way. It argues that the hard open problems of machine learning and AI are intrinsically related to causality, and explains how the field is beginning to understand them.