May 23, 2019
Bayesian Item Response Modelling in R with brms and Stan
Paul-Christian Bürkner

Item Response Theory (IRT) is widely applied in the human sciences to model persons' responses on a set of items measuring one or more latent constructs. While several R packages have been developed that implement IRT models, they tend to be restricted to respective prespecified classes of models. Further, most implementations are frequentist while the availability of Bayesian methods remains comparably limited. We demonstrate how to use the R package brms together with the probabilistic programming language Stan to specify and fit a wide range of Bayesian IRT models using flexible and intuitive multilevel formula syntax. Further, item and person parameters can be related in both a linear or non-linear manner. Various distributions for categorical, ordinal, and continuous responses are supported. Users may even define their own custom response distribution for use in the presented framework. Common IRT model classes that can be specified natively in the presented framework include 1PL and 2PL logistic models optionally also containing guessing parameters, graded response and partial credit ordinal models, as well as drift diffusion models of response times coupled with binary decisions. Posterior distributions of item and person parameters can be conveniently extracted and post-processed. Model fit can be evaluated and compared using Bayes factors and efficient cross-validation procedures.

Speech2Face: Learning the Face Behind a Voice
Tae-Hyun Oh, Tali Dekel, Changil Kim, Inbar Mosseri, William T. Freeman, Michael Rubinstein, Wojciech Matusik

How much can we infer about a person's looks from the way they speak? In this paper, we study the task of reconstructing a facial image of a person from a short audio recording of that person speaking. We design and train a deep neural network to perform this task using millions of natural Internet/YouTube videos of people speaking. During training, our model learns voice-face correlations that allow it to produce images that capture various physical attributes of the speakers such as age, gender and ethnicity. This is done in a self-supervised manner, by utilizing the natural co-occurrence of faces and speech in Internet videos, without the need to model attributes explicitly. We evaluate and numerically quantify how--and in what manner--our Speech2Face reconstructions, obtained directly from audio, resemble the true face images of the speakers.

May 22, 2019
Data-Efficient Image Recognition with Contrastive Predictive Coding
Olivier J. Hénaff, Ali Razavi, Carl Doersch, S. M. Ali Eslami, Aaron van den Oord

Large scale deep learning excels when labeled images are abundant, yet data-efficient learning remains a longstanding challenge. While biological vision is thought to leverage vast amounts of unlabeled data to solve classification problems with limited supervision, computer vision has so far not succeeded in this `semi-supervised' regime. Our work tackles this challenge with Contrastive Predictive Coding, an unsupervised objective which extracts stable structure from still images. The result is a representation which, equipped with a simple linear classifier, separates ImageNet categories better than all competing methods, and surpasses the performance of a fully-supervised AlexNet model. When given a small number of labeled images (as few as 13 per class), this representation retains a strong classification performance, outperforming state-of-the-art semi-supervised methods by 10% Top-5 accuracy and supervised methods by 20%. Finally, we find our unsupervised representation to serve as a useful substrate for image detection on the PASCAL-VOC 2007 dataset, approaching the performance of representations trained with a fully annotated ImageNet dataset. We expect these results to open the door to pipelines that use scalable unsupervised representations as a drop-in replacement for supervised ones for real-world vision tasks where labels are scarce.

May 20, 2019
Few-Shot Adversarial Learning of Realistic Neural Talking Head Models
Egor Zakharov, Aliaksandra Shysheya, Egor Burkov, Victor Lempitsky

Several recent works have shown how highly realistic human head images can be obtained by training convolutional neural networks to generate them. In order to create a personalized talking head model, these works require training on a large dataset of images of a single person. However, in many practical scenarios, such personalized talking head models need to be learned from a few image views of a person, potentially even a single image. Here, we present a system with such few-shot capability. It performs lengthy meta-learning on a large dataset of videos, and after that is able to frame few- and one-shot learning of neural talking head models of previously unseen people as adversarial training problems with high capacity generators and discriminators. Crucially, the system is able to initialize the parameters of both the generator and the discriminator in a person-specific way, so that training can be based on just a few images and done quickly, despite the need to tune tens of millions of parameters. We show that such an approach is able to learn highly realistic and personalized talking head models of new people and even portrait paintings.

PaperRobot: Incremental Draft Generation of Scientific Ideas
Qingyun Wang, Lifu Huang, Zhiying Jiang, Kevin Knight, Heng Ji, Mohit Bansal, Yi Luan

We present a PaperRobot who performs as an automatic research assistant by (1) conducting deep understanding of a large collection of human-written papers in a target domain and constructing comprehensive background knowledge graphs (KGs); (2) creating new ideas by predicting links from the background KGs, by combining graph attention and contextual text attention; (3) incrementally writing some key elements of a new paper based on memory-attention networks: from the input title along with predicted related entities to generate a paper abstract, from the abstract to generate conclusion and future work, and finally from future work to generate a title for a follow-on paper. Turing Tests, where a biomedical domain expert is asked to compare a system output and a human-authored string, show PaperRobot generated abstracts, conclusion and future work sections, and new titles are chosen over human-written ones up to 30%, 24% and 12% of the time, respectively.

May 19, 2019
HellaSwag: Can a Machine Really Finish Your Sentence?
Rowan Zellers, Ari Holtzman, Yonatan Bisk, Ali Farhadi, Yejin Choi

Recent work by Zellers et al. (2018) introduced a new task of commonsense natural language inference: given an event description such as "A woman sits at a piano," a machine must select the most likely followup: "She sets her fingers on the keys." With the introduction of BERT, near human-level performance was reached. Does this mean that machines can perform human level commonsense inference? In this paper, we show that commonsense inference still proves difficult for even state-of-the-art models, by presenting HellaSwag, a new challenge dataset. Though its questions are trivial for humans (>95% accuracy), state-of-the-art models struggle (<48%). We achieve this via Adversarial Filtering (AF), a data collection paradigm wherein a series of discriminators iteratively select an adversarial set of machine-generated wrong answers. AF proves to be surprisingly robust. The key insight is to scale up the length and complexity of the dataset examples towards a critical 'Goldilocks' zone wherein generated text is ridiculous to humans, yet often misclassified by state-of-the-art models. Our construction of HellaSwag, and its resulting difficulty, sheds light on the inner workings of deep pretrained models. More broadly, it suggests a new path forward for NLP research, in which benchmarks co-evolve with the evolving state-of-the-art in an adversarial way, so as to present ever-harder challenges.

May 18, 2019
The network architecture of the human brain is modularly encoded in the genome
Maxwell A. Bertolero, Ann Sizemore Blevins, Graham L. Baum, Ruben C. Gur, Raquel E. Gur, David R. Roalf, Theodore D. Satterthwaite, Danielle S. Bassett

The form of genotype-phenotype maps are typically modular. However, the form of the genotype-phenotype map in human brain connectivity is unknown. A modular mapping could exist, in which distinct sets of genes' coexpression across brain regions is similar to distinct brain regions' functional or structural connectivity, and in which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at distinct sets of genes alter distinct brain regions' functional or structural connectivity. Here, we leverage multimodal human neuroimaging, genotype, and post-mortem gene expression datasets to determine the form of the genotype-phenotype map of human brain connectivity. Across multiple analytic approaches, we find that both gene coexpression and SNPs are consistently more strongly related to functional brain connectivity than to structural brain connectivity. Critically, network analyses of genes and brain connectivity demonstrate that different sets of genes account for the connectivity of different regions in the brain. Moreover, the genetic signature of each brain region reflects its community affiliation and role in network communication. Connector hubs have genetic signatures that are similarly connector-like, in that they are representative of the genetic signature of nodes in multiple other modules. Remarkably, we find a tight relationship between gene coexpression and genetic variance: SNPs that are located at the genes whose coexpression is similar to a region's connectivity across cortex tend to predict more variance in that region's connectivity across subjects than SNPs at other genes. Finally, brain regions whose connectivity are well explained by gene coexpression and genetic variance (SNPs) also display connectivity variance across subjects that tracks variance in human performance on cognitively demanding tasks, heritability, development, and evolutionary expansion.

May 17, 2019
Recurrent Kalman Networks: Factorized Inference in High-Dimensional Deep Feature Spaces
Philipp Becker, Harit Pandya, Gregor Gebhardt, Cheng Zhao, James Taylor, Gerhard Neumann

In order to integrate uncertainty estimates into deep time-series modelling, Kalman Filters (KFs) (Kalman et al., 1960) have been integrated with deep learning models, however, such approaches typically rely on approximate inference techniques such as variational inference which makes learning more complex and often less scalable due to approximation errors. We propose a new deep approach to Kalman filtering which can be learned directly in an end-to-end manner using backpropagation without additional approximations. Our approach uses a high-dimensional factorized latent state representation for which the Kalman updates simplify to scalar operations and thus avoids hard to backpropagate, computationally heavy and potentially unstable matrix inversions. Moreover, we use locally linear dynamic models to efficiently propagate the latent state to the next time step. The resulting network architecture, which we call Recurrent Kalman Network (RKN), can be used for any time-series data, similar to a LSTM (Hochreiter & Schmidhuber, 1997) but uses an explicit representation of uncertainty. As shown by our experiments, the RKN obtains much more accurate uncertainty estimates than an LSTM or Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs) (Cho et al., 2014) while also showing a slightly improved prediction performance and outperforms various recent generative models on an image imputation task.

Arena: A General Evaluation Platform and Building Toolkit for Multi-Agent Intelligence
Yuhang Song, Jianyi Wang, Thomas Lukasiewicz, Zhenghua Xu, Mai Xu, Zihan Ding, Lianlong Wu

Learning agents that are not only capable of taking tests but also innovating is becoming the next hot topic in AI. One of the most promising paths towards this vision is multi-agent learning, where agents act as the environment for each other, and improving each agent means proposing new problems for the others. However, existing evaluation platforms are either not compatible with multi-agent settings, or limited to a specific game. That is, there is not yet a general evaluation platform for research on multi-agent intelligence. To this end, we introduce Arena, a general evaluation platform for multi-agent intelligence with \NumGames games of diverse logic and representations. Furthermore, multi-agent intelligence is still at the stage where many problems remain unexplored. Thus, we provide a building toolkit for researchers to invent and build novel multi-agent problems from the provided game set with little efforts. Finally, we provide python implementations of five state-of-the-art deep multi-agent reinforcement learning baselines. Along with the baseline implementations, we release a set of 100 best agents/teams that we can train with different training schemes for each game, as the base for evaluating agents with population performance, so that the research community can perform comparisons under a stable and uniform standard.

Integer Discrete Flows and Lossless Compression
Emiel Hoogeboom, Jorn W. T. Peters, Rianne van den Berg, Max Welling

Lossless compression methods shorten the expected representation size of data without loss of information, using a statistical model. Flow-based models are attractive in this setting because they admit exact likelihood optimization, which is equivalent to minimizing the expected number of bits per message. However, conventional flows assume continuous data, which may lead to reconstruction errors when quantized for compression. For that reason, we introduce a generative flow for ordinal discrete data called Integer Discrete Flow (IDF): a bijective integer map that can learn rich transformations on high-dimensional data. As building blocks for IDFs, we introduce flexible transformation layers called integer discrete coupling and lower triangular coupling. Our experiments show that IDFs are competitive with other flow-based generative models. Furthermore, we demonstrate that IDF based compression achieves state-of-the-art lossless compression rates on CIFAR10, ImageNet32, and ImageNet64.

Parallel decompression of gzip-compressed files and random access to DNA sequences
Maël Kerbiriou, Rayan Chikhi

Decompressing a file made by the gzip program at an arbitrary location is in principle impossible, due to the nature of the DEFLATE compression algorithm. Consequently, no existing program can take advantage of parallelism to rapidly decompress large gzip-compressed files. This is an unsatisfactory bottleneck, especially for the analysis of large sequencing data experiments. Here we propose a parallel algorithm and an implementation, pugz, that performs fast and exact decompression of any text file. We show that pugz is an order of magnitude faster than gunzip, and 5x faster than a highly-optimized sequential implementation (libdeflate). We also study the related problem of random access to compressed data. We give simple models and experimental results that shed light on the structure of gzip-compressed files containing DNA sequences. Preliminary results show that random access to sequences within a gzip-compressed FASTQ file is almost always feasible at low compression levels, yet is approximate at higher compression levels.

May 16, 2019
Deep Compressed Sensing
Yan Wu, Mihaela Rosca, Timothy Lillicrap

Compressed sensing (CS) provides an elegant framework for recovering sparse signals from compressed measurements. For example, CS can exploit the structure of natural images and recover an image from only a few random measurements. CS is flexible and data efficient, but its application has been restricted by the strong assumption of sparsity and costly reconstruction process. A recent approach that combines CS with neural network generators has removed the constraint of sparsity, but reconstruction remains slow. Here we propose a novel framework that significantly improves both the performance and speed of signal recovery by jointly training a generator and the optimisation process for reconstruction via meta-learning. We explore training the measurements with different objectives, and derive a family of models based on minimising measurement errors. We show that Generative Adversarial Nets (GANs) can be viewed as a special case in this family of models. Borrowing insights from the CS perspective, we develop a novel way of improving GANs using gradient information from the discriminator.

On Variational Bounds of Mutual Information
Ben Poole, Sherjil Ozair, Aaron van den Oord, Alexander A. Alemi, George Tucker

Estimating and optimizing Mutual Information (MI) is core to many problems in machine learning; however, bounding MI in high dimensions is challenging. To establish tractable and scalable objectives, recent work has turned to variational bounds parameterized by neural networks, but the relationships and tradeoffs between these bounds remains unclear. In this work, we unify these recent developments in a single framework. We find that the existing variational lower bounds degrade when the MI is large, exhibiting either high bias or high variance. To address this problem, we introduce a continuum of lower bounds that encompasses previous bounds and flexibly trades off bias and variance. On high-dimensional, controlled problems, we empirically characterize the bias and variance of the bounds and their gradients and demonstrate the effectiveness of our new bounds for estimation and representation learning.

May 15, 2019
BERT Rediscovers the Classical NLP Pipeline
Ian Tenney, Dipanjan Das, Ellie Pavlick

Pre-trained text encoders have rapidly advanced the state of the art on many NLP tasks. We focus on one such model, BERT, and aim to quantify where linguistic information is captured within the network. We find that the model represents the steps of the traditional NLP pipeline in an interpretable and localizable way, and that the regions responsible for each step appear in the expected sequence: POS tagging, parsing, NER, semantic roles, then coreference. Qualitative analysis reveals that the model can and often does adjust this pipeline dynamically, revising lower-level decisions on the basis of disambiguating information from higher-level representations.

The Mobility Network of Scientists: Analyzing Temporal Correlations in Scientific Careers
Giacomo Vaccario, Luca Verginer, Frank Schweitzer

To understand the mobility patterns of scientists, we combine two large-scale bibliographic data sets to reveal the geographical "career trajectories" of scientists and their temporal properties. Each trajectory contains, on the individual level, information about the institutions, cities and countries and the time spent there by scientists. By aggregating the individual career trajectories, we reconstruct the world network of movements of scientists, where the nodes represent cities and the links in- and outflows. We characterize the topological properties of this network by means of degree, local clustering coefficient, path length and neighbor connectivity. Then, by using multi-order graphical models, we analyze the temporal correlations of scientists' career trajectories at the country, city and institution level. We find that scientist movements at the city and country level can be correctly modeled from a static network perspective, because there are no statistically significant temporal correlations at these aggregation levels. In contrast, at the affiliation level we find that temporal correlations in scientists' career trajectories are important. That means, a memory effect in scientists' careers impacts their next affiliation. We demonstrate that these correlations can be correctly captured using a second-order network, in which nodes represent moves between two different affiliations. The finding that memory effects are only detectable at the lowest level of aggregation, i.e. the institution, implies that this is the most appropriate level to analyze the determinants of relocation decisions.

May 14, 2019
Learnable Triangulation of Human Pose
Karim Iskakov, Egor Burkov, Victor Lempitsky, Yury Malkov

We present two novel solutions for multi-view 3D human pose estimation based on new learnable triangulation methods that combine 3D information from multiple 2D views. The first (baseline) solution is a basic differentiable algebraic triangulation with an addition of confidence weights estimated from the input images. The second solution is based on a novel method of volumetric aggregation from intermediate 2D backbone feature maps. The aggregated volume is then refined via 3D convolutions that produce final 3D joint heatmaps and allow modelling a human pose prior. Crucially, both approaches are end-to-end differentiable, which allows us to directly optimize the target metric. We demonstrate transferability of the solutions across datasets and considerably improve the multi-view state of the art on the Human3.6M dataset. Video demonstration, annotations and additional materials will be posted on our project page (https://saic-violet.github.io/learnable-triangulation).

Machine Learning at Microsoft with ML.NET
Zeeshan Ahmed, Saeed Amizadeh, Mikhail Bilenko, Rogan Carr, Wei-Sheng Chin, Yael Dekel, Xavier Dupre, Vadim Eksarevskiy, Eric Erhardt, Costin Eseanu, Senja Filipi, Tom Finley, Abhishek Goswami, Monte Hoover, Scott Inglis, Matteo Interlandi, Shon Katzenberger, Najeeb Kazmi, Gleb Krivosheev, Pete Luferenko, Ivan Matantsev, Sergiy Matusevych, Shahab Moradi, Gani Nazirov, Justin Ormont, Gal Oshri, Artidoro Pagnoni, Jignesh Parmar, Prabhat Roy, Mohammad Zeeshan Siddiqui, Markus Weimer, Shauheen Zahirazami, Yiwen Zhu

Machine Learning is transitioning from an art and science into a technology available to every developer. In the near future, every application on every platform will incorporate trained models to encode data-based decisions that would be impossible for developers to author. This presents a significant engineering challenge, since currently data science and modeling are largely decoupled from standard software development processes. This separation makes incorporating machine learning capabilities inside applications unnecessarily costly and difficult, and furthermore discourage developers from embracing ML in first place. In this paper we present ML.NET, a framework developed at Microsoft over the last decade in response to the challenge of making it easy to ship machine learning models in large software applications. We present its architecture, and illuminate the application demands that shaped it. Specifically, we introduce DataView, the core data abstraction of ML.NET which allows it to capture full predictive pipelines efficiently and consistently across training and inference lifecycles. We close the paper with a surprisingly favorable performance study of ML.NET compared to more recent entrants, and a discussion of some lessons learned.

May 09, 2019
The Effect of Network Width on Stochastic Gradient Descent and Generalization: an Empirical Study
Daniel S. Park, Jascha Sohl-Dickstein, Quoc V. Le, Samuel L. Smith

We investigate how the final parameters found by stochastic gradient descent are influenced by over-parameterization. We generate families of models by increasing the number of channels in a base network, and then perform a large hyper-parameter search to study how the test error depends on learning rate, batch size, and network width. We find that the optimal SGD hyper-parameters are determined by a "normalized noise scale," which is a function of the batch size, learning rate, and initialization conditions. In the absence of batch normalization, the optimal normalized noise scale is directly proportional to width. Wider networks, with their higher optimal noise scale, also achieve higher test accuracy. These observations hold for MLPs, ConvNets, and ResNets, and for two different parameterization schemes ("Standard" and "NTK"). We observe a similar trend with batch normalization for ResNets. Surprisingly, since the largest stable learning rate is bounded, the largest batch size consistent with the optimal normalized noise scale decreases as the width increases.

S$^\mathbf{4}$L: Self-Supervised Semi-Supervised Learning
Xiaohua Zhai, Avital Oliver, Alexander Kolesnikov, Lucas Beyer

This work tackles the problem of semi-supervised learning of image classifiers. Our main insight is that the field of semi-supervised learning can benefit from the quickly advancing field of self-supervised visual representation learning. Unifying these two approaches, we propose the framework of self-supervised semi-supervised learning ($S^4L$) and use it to derive two novel semi-supervised image classification methods. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods in comparison to both carefully tuned baselines, and existing semi-supervised learning methods. We then show that $S^4L$ and existing semi-supervised methods can be jointly trained, yielding a new state-of-the-art result on semi-supervised ILSVRC-2012 with 10% of labels.

May 08, 2019
Meta-learning of Sequential Strategies
Pedro A. Ortega, Jane X. Wang, Mark Rowland, Tim Genewein, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Razvan Pascanu, Nicolas Heess, Joel Veness, Alex Pritzel, Pablo Sprechmann, Siddhant M. Jayakumar, Tom McGrath, Kevin Miller, Mohammad Azar, Ian Osband, Neil Rabinowitz, András György, Silvia Chiappa, Simon Osindero, Yee Whye Teh, Hado van Hasselt, Nando de Freitas, Matthew Botvinick, Shane Legg

In this report we review memory-based meta-learning as a tool for building sample-efficient strategies that learn from past experience to adapt to any task within a target class. Our goal is to equip the reader with the conceptual foundations of this tool for building new, scalable agents that operate on broad domains. To do so, we present basic algorithmic templates for building near-optimal predictors and reinforcement learners which behave as if they had a probabilistic model that allowed them to efficiently exploit task structure. Furthermore, we recast memory-based meta-learning within a Bayesian framework, showing that the meta-learned strategies are near-optimal because they amortize Bayes-filtered data, where the adaptation is implemented in the memory dynamics as a state-machine of sufficient statistics. Essentially, memory-based meta-learning translates the hard problem of probabilistic sequential inference into a regression problem.

Unified Language Model Pre-training for Natural Language Understanding and Generation
Li Dong, Nan Yang, Wenhui Wang, Furu Wei, Xiaodong Liu, Yu Wang, Jianfeng Gao, Ming Zhou, Hsiao-Wuen Hon

This paper presents a new Unified pre-trained Language Model (UniLM) that can be fine-tuned for both natural language understanding and generation tasks. The model is pre-trained using three types of language modeling objectives: unidirectional (both left-to-right and right-to-left), bidirectional, and sequence-to-sequence prediction. The unified modeling is achieved by employing a shared Transformer network and utilizing specific self-attention masks to control what context the prediction conditions on. We can fine-tune UniLM as a unidirectional decoder, a bidirectional encoder, or a sequence-to-sequence model to support various downstream natural language understanding and generation tasks. UniLM compares favorably with BERT on the GLUE benchmark, and the SQuAD 2.0 and CoQA question answering tasks. Moreover, our model achieves new state-of-the-art results on three natural language generation tasks, including improving the CNN/DailyMail abstractive summarization ROUGE-L to 40.63 (2.16 absolute improvement), pushing the CoQA generative question answering F1 score to 82.5 (37.1 absolute improvement), and the SQuAD question generation BLEU-4 to 22.88 (6.50 absolute improvement).

Gaussian Differential Privacy
Jinshuo Dong, Aaron Roth, Weijie J. Su

Differential privacy has seen remarkable success as a rigorous and practical formalization of data privacy in the past decade. But it also has some well known weaknesses: notably, it does not tightly handle composition. This weakness has inspired several recent relaxations of differential privacy based on Renyi divergences. We propose an alternative relaxation of differential privacy, which we term "$f$-differential privacy", which has a number of appealing properties and avoids some of the difficulties associated with divergence based relaxations. First, it preserves the hypothesis testing interpretation of differential privacy, which makes its guarantees easily interpretable. It allows for lossless reasoning about composition and post-processing, and notably, a direct way to import existing tools from differential privacy, including privacy amplification by subsampling. We define a canonical single parameter family of definitions within our class which we call "Gaussian Differential Privacy", defined based on the hypothesis testing of two shifted Gaussian distributions. We show that this family is focal by proving a central limit theorem, which shows that the privacy guarantees of \emph{any} hypothesis-testing based definition of privacy (including differential privacy) converges to Gaussian differential privacy in the limit under composition. We also prove a finite (Berry-Esseen style) version of the central limit theorem, which gives a useful tool for tractably analyzing the exact composition of potentially complicated expressions. We demonstrate the use of the tools we develop by giving an improved analysis of the privacy guarantees of noisy stochastic gradient descent.

May 06, 2019
Batch Normalization is a Cause of Adversarial Vulnerability
Angus Galloway, Anna Golubeva, Thomas Tanay, Medhat Moussa, Graham W. Taylor

Batch normalization (batch norm) is often used in an attempt to stabilize and accelerate training in deep neural networks. In many cases it indeed decreases the number of parameter updates required to reduce the training error. However, it also reduces robustness to small input perturbations and noise by double-digit percentages, as we show on five standard datasets. Furthermore, substituting weight decay for batch norm is sufficient to nullify the relationship between adversarial vulnerability and the input dimension. Our work is consistent with a mean-field analysis that found that batch norm causes exploding gradients.

MixMatch: A Holistic Approach to Semi-Supervised Learning
David Berthelot, Nicholas Carlini, Ian Goodfellow, Nicolas Papernot, Avital Oliver, Colin Raffel

Semi-supervised learning has proven to be a powerful paradigm for leveraging unlabeled data to mitigate the reliance on large labeled datasets. In this work, we unify the current dominant approaches for semi-supervised learning to produce a new algorithm, MixMatch, that works by guessing low-entropy labels for data-augmented unlabeled examples and mixing labeled and unlabeled data using MixUp. We show that MixMatch obtains state-of-the-art results by a large margin across many datasets and labeled data amounts. For example, on CIFAR-10 with 250 labels, we reduce error rate by a factor of 4 (from 38% to 11%) and by a factor of 2 on STL-10. We also demonstrate how MixMatch can help achieve a dramatically better accuracy-privacy trade-off for differential privacy. Finally, we perform an ablation study to tease apart which components of MixMatch are most important for its success.

Searching for MobileNetV3
Andrew Howard, Mark Sandler, Grace Chu, Liang-Chieh Chen, Bo Chen, Mingxing Tan, Weijun Wang, Yukun Zhu, Ruoming Pang, Vijay Vasudevan, Quoc V. Le, Hartwig Adam

We present the next generation of MobileNets based on a combination of complementary search techniques as well as a novel architecture design. MobileNetV3 is tuned to mobile phone CPUs through a combination of hardware aware network architecture search (NAS) complemented by the NetAdapt algorithm and then subsequently improved through novel architecture advances. This paper starts the exploration of how automated search algorithms and network design can work together to harness complementary approaches improving the overall state of the art. Through this process we create two new MobileNet models for release: MobileNetV3-Large and MobileNetV3-Small which are targeted for high and low resource use cases. These models are then adapted and applied to the tasks of object detection and semantic segmentation. For the task of semantic segmentation (or any dense pixel prediction), we propose a new efficient segmentation decoder Lite Reduced Atrous Spatial Pyramid Pooling (LR-ASPP). We achieve new state of the art results for mobile classification, detection and segmentation. MobileNetV3-Large is 3.2% more accurate on ImageNet classification while reducing latency by 15% compared to MobileNetV2. MobileNetV2-Small is 4.6% more accurate while reducing latency by 5% compared to MobileNetV2. MobileNetV3-Large detection is 25% faster at roughly the same accuracy as MobileNetV2 on COCO detection. MobileNetV3-Large LR-ASPP is 30% faster than MobileNetV2 R-ASPP at similar accuracy for Cityscapes segmentation.