January 17, 2019
Attentive Neural Processes
Hyunjik Kim, Andriy Mnih, Jonathan Schwarz, Marta Garnelo, Ali Eslami, Dan Rosenbaum, Oriol Vinyals, Yee Whye Teh

Neural Processes (NPs) (Garnelo et al 2018a;b) approach regression by learning to map a context set of observed input-output pairs to a distribution over regression functions. Each function models the distribution of the output given an input, conditioned on the context. NPs have the benefit of fitting observed data efficiently with linear complexity in the number of context input-output pairs, and can learn a wide family of conditional distributions; they learn predictive distributions conditioned on context sets of arbitrary size. Nonetheless, we show that NPs suffer a fundamental drawback of underfitting, giving inaccurate predictions at the inputs of the observed data they condition on. We address this issue by incorporating attention into NPs, allowing each input location to attend to the relevant context points for the prediction. We show that this greatly improves the accuracy of predictions, results in noticeably faster training, and expands the range of functions that can be modelled.

Soft Rasterizer: Differentiable Rendering for Unsupervised Single-View Mesh Reconstruction
Shichen Liu, Weikai Chen, Tianye Li, Hao Li

Rendering is the process of generating 2D images from 3D assets, simulated in a virtual environment, typically with a graphics pipeline. By inverting such renderer, one can think of a learning approach to predict a 3D shape from an input image. However, standard rendering pipelines involve a fundamental discretization step called rasterization, which prevents the rendering process to be differentiable, hence suitable for learning. We present the first non-parametric and truly differentiable rasterizer based on silhouettes. Our method enables unsupervised learning for high-quality 3D mesh reconstruction from a single image. We call our framework `soft rasterizer' as it provides an accurate soft approximation of the standard rasterizer. The key idea is to fuse the probabilistic contributions of all mesh triangles with respect to the rendered pixels. When combined with a mesh generator in a deep neural network, our soft rasterizer is able to generate an approximated silhouette of the generated polygon mesh in the forward pass. The rendering loss is back-propagated to supervise the mesh generation without the need of 3D training data. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art unsupervised techniques, both quantitatively and qualitatively. We also show that our soft rasterizer can achieve comparable results to the cutting-edge supervised learning method and in various cases even better ones, especially for real-world data.

January 16, 2019
DeepSDF: Learning Continuous Signed Distance Functions for Shape Representation
Jeong Joon Park, Peter Florence, Julian Straub, Richard Newcombe, Steven Lovegrove

Computer graphics, 3D computer vision and robotics communities have produced multiple approaches to representing 3D geometry for rendering and reconstruction. These provide trade-offs across fidelity, efficiency and compression capabilities. In this work, we introduce DeepSDF, a learned continuous Signed Distance Function (SDF) representation of a class of shapes that enables high quality shape representation, interpolation and completion from partial and noisy 3D input data. DeepSDF, like its classical counterpart, represents a shape's surface by a continuous volumetric field: the magnitude of a point in the field represents the distance to the surface boundary and the sign indicates whether the region is inside (-) or outside (+) of the shape, hence our representation implicitly encodes a shape's boundary as the zero-level-set of the learned function while explicitly representing the classification of space as being part of the shapes interior or not. While classical SDF's both in analytical or discretized voxel form typically represent the surface of a single shape, DeepSDF can represent an entire class of shapes. Furthermore, we show state-of-the-art performance for learned 3D shape representation and completion while reducing the model size by an order of magnitude compared with previous work.

Learning from Dialogue after Deployment: Feed Yourself, Chatbot!
Braden Hancock, Antoine Bordes, Pierre-Emmanuel Mazare, Jason Weston

The majority of conversations a dialogue agent sees over its lifetime occur after it has already been trained and deployed, leaving a vast store of potential training signal untapped. In this work, we propose the self-feeding chatbot, a dialogue agent with the ability to extract new training examples from the conversations it participates in. As our agent engages in conversation, it also estimates user satisfaction in its responses. When the conversation appears to be going well, the user's responses become new training examples to imitate. When the agent believes it has made a mistake, it asks for feedback; learning to predict the feedback that will be given improves the chatbot's dialogue abilities further. On the PersonaChat chit-chat dataset with over 131k training examples, we find that learning from dialogue with a self-feeding chatbot significantly improves performance, regardless of the amount of traditional supervision.

Lagging Inference Networks and Posterior Collapse in Variational Autoencoders
Junxian He, Daniel Spokoyny, Graham Neubig, Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick

The variational autoencoder (VAE) is a popular combination of deep latent variable model and accompanying variational learning technique. By using a neural inference network to approximate the model's posterior on latent variables, VAEs efficiently parameterize a lower bound on marginal data likelihood that can be optimized directly via gradient methods. In practice, however, VAE training often results in a degenerate local optimum known as "posterior collapse" where the model learns to ignore the latent variable and the approximate posterior mimics the prior. In this paper, we investigate posterior collapse from the perspective of training dynamics. We find that during the initial stages of training the inference network fails to approximate the model's true posterior, which is a moving target. As a result, the model is encouraged to ignore the latent encoding and posterior collapse occurs. Based on this observation, we propose an extremely simple modification to VAE training to reduce inference lag: depending on the model's current mutual information between latent variable and observation, we aggressively optimize the inference network before performing each model update. Despite introducing neither new model components nor significant complexity over basic VAE, our approach is able to avoid the problem of collapse that has plagued a large amount of previous work. Empirically, our approach outperforms strong autoregressive baselines on text and image benchmarks in terms of held-out likelihood, and is competitive with more complex techniques for avoiding collapse while being substantially faster.

TensorFlow.js: Machine Learning for the Web and Beyond
Daniel Smilkov, Nikhil Thorat, Yannick Assogba, Ann Yuan, Nick Kreeger, Ping Yu, Kangyi Zhang, Shanqing Cai, Eric Nielsen, David Soergel, Stan Bileschi, Michael Terry, Charles Nicholson, Sandeep N. Gupta, Sarah Sirajuddin, D. Sculley, Rajat Monga, Greg Corrado, Fernanda B. Viegas, Martin Wattenberg

TensorFlow.js is a library for building and executing machine learning algorithms in JavaScript. TensorFlow.js models run in a web browser and in the Node.js environment. The library is part of the TensorFlow ecosystem, providing a set of APIs that are compatible with those in Python, allowing models to be ported between the Python and JavaScript ecosystems. TensorFlow.js has empowered a new set of developers from the extensive JavaScript community to build and deploy machine learning models and enabled new classes of on-device computation. This paper describes the design, API, and implementation of TensorFlow.js, and highlights some of the impactful use cases.

January 15, 2019
Exploiting Synchronized Lyrics And Vocal Features For Music Emotion Detection
Loreto Parisi, Simone Francia, Silvio Olivastri, Maria Stella Tavella

One of the key points in music recommendation is authoring engaging playlists according to sentiment and emotions. While previous works were mostly based on audio for music discovery and playlists generation, we take advantage of our synchronized lyrics dataset to combine text representations and music features in a novel way; we therefore introduce the Synchronized Lyrics Emotion Dataset. Unlike other approaches that randomly exploited the audio samples and the whole text, our data is split according to the temporal information provided by the synchronization between lyrics and audio. This work shows a comparison between text-based and audio-based deep learning classification models using different techniques from Natural Language Processing and Music Information Retrieval domains. From the experiments on audio we conclude that using vocals only, instead of the whole audio data improves the overall performances of the audio classifier. In the lyrics experiments we exploit the state-of-the-art word representations applied to the main Deep Learning architectures available in literature. In our benchmarks the results show how the Bilinear LSTM classifier with Attention based on fastText word embedding performs better than the CNN applied on audio.

Identifying and Correcting Label Bias in Machine Learning
Heinrich Jiang, Ofir Nachum

Datasets often contain biases which unfairly disadvantage certain groups, and classifiers trained on such datasets can inherit these biases. In this paper, we provide a mathematical formulation of how this bias can arise. We do so by assuming the existence of underlying, unknown, and unbiased labels which are overwritten by an agent who intends to provide accurate labels but may have biases against certain groups. Despite the fact that we only observe the biased labels, we are able to show that the bias may nevertheless be corrected by re-weighting the data points without changing the labels. We show, with theoretical guarantees, that training on the re-weighted dataset corresponds to training on the unobserved but unbiased labels, thus leading to an unbiased machine learning classifier. Our procedure is fast and robust and can be used with virtually any learning algorithm. We evaluate on a number of standard machine learning fairness datasets and a variety of fairness notions, finding that our method outperforms standard approaches in achieving fair classification.

Topological Analysis of Bitcoin's Lightning Network
István András Seres, László Gulyás, Dániel A. Nagy, Péter Burcsi

Bitcoin's Lightning Network (LN) is a scalability solution for Bitcoin allowing transactions to be issued with negligible fees and settled instantly at scale. In order to use LN, funds need to be locked in payment channels on the Bitcoin blockchain (Layer-1) for subsequent use in LN (Layer-2). LN is comprised of many payment channels forming a payment channel network. LN's promise is that relatively few payment channels already enable anyone to efficiently, securely and privately route payments across the whole network. In this paper, we quantify the structural properties of LN and argue that LN's current topological properties can be ameliorated in order to improve the security of LN, enabling it to reach its true potential.

January 14, 2019
Human few-shot learning of compositional instructions
Brenden M. Lake, Tal Linzen, Marco Baroni

People learn in fast and flexible ways that have not been emulated by machines. Once a person learns a new verb "dax," he or she can effortlessly understand how to "dax twice," "walk and dax," or "dax vigorously." There have been striking recent improvements in machine learning for natural language processing, yet the best algorithms require vast amounts of experience and struggle to generalize new concepts in compositional ways. To better understand these distinctively human abilities, we study the compositional skills of people through language-like instruction learning tasks. Our results show that people can learn and use novel functional concepts from very few examples (few-shot learning), successfully applying familiar functions to novel inputs. People can also compose concepts in complex ways that go beyond the provided demonstrations. Two additional experiments examined the assumptions and inductive biases that people make when solving these tasks, revealing three biases: mutual exclusivity, one-to-one mappings, and iconic concatenation. We discuss the implications for cognitive modeling and the potential for building machines with more human-like language learning capabilities.

January 12, 2019
Eliminating all bad Local Minima from Loss Landscapes without even adding an Extra Unit
Jascha Sohl-Dickstein, Kenji Kawaguchi

Recent work has noted that all bad local minima can be removed from neural network loss landscapes, by adding a single unit with a particular parameterization. We show that the core technique from these papers can be used to remove all bad local minima from any loss landscape, so long as the global minimum has a loss of zero. This procedure does not require the addition of auxiliary units, or even that the loss be associated with a neural network. The method of action involves all bad local minima being converted into bad (non-local) minima at infinity in terms of auxiliary parameters.

January 10, 2019
Reverse-Engineering Satire, or "Paper on Computational Humor Accepted Despite Making Serious Advances"
Robert West, Eric Horvitz

Humor is an essential human trait. Efforts to understand humor have called out links between humor and the foundations of cognition, as well as the importance of humor in social engagement. As such, it is a promising and important subject of study, with relevance for artificial intelligence and human-computer interaction. Previous computational work on humor has mostly operated at a coarse level of granularity, e.g., predicting whether an entire sentence, paragraph, document, etc., is humorous. As a step toward deep understanding of humor, we seek fine-grained models of attributes that make a given text humorous. Starting from the observation that satirical news headlines tend to resemble serious news headlines, we build and analyze a corpus of satirical headlines paired with nearly identical but serious headlines. The corpus is constructed via Unfun.me, an online game that incentivizes players to make minimal edits to satirical headlines with the goal of making other players believe the results are serious headlines. The edit operations used to successfully remove humor pinpoint the words and concepts that play a key role in making the original, satirical headline funny. Our analysis reveals that the humor tends to reside toward the end of headlines, and primarily in noun phrases, and that most satirical headlines follow a certain logical pattern, which we term false analogy. Overall, this paper deepens our understanding of the syntactic and semantic structure of satirical news headlines and provides insights for building humor-producing systems.

January 09, 2019
Transformer-XL: Attentive Language Models Beyond a Fixed-Length Context
Zihang Dai, Zhilin Yang, Yiming Yang, William W. Cohen, Jaime Carbonell, Quoc V. Le, Ruslan Salakhutdinov

Transformer networks have a potential of learning longer-term dependency, but are limited by a fixed-length context in the setting of language modeling. As a solution, we propose a novel neural architecture, \textit{Transformer-XL}, that enables Transformer to learn dependency beyond a fixed length without disrupting temporal coherence. Concretely, it consists of a segment-level recurrence mechanism and a novel positional encoding scheme. Our method not only enables capturing longer-term dependency, but also resolves the problem of context fragmentation. As a result, Transformer-XL learns dependency that is about 80\% longer than RNNs and 450\% longer than vanilla Transformers, achieves better performance on both short and long sequences, and is up to 1,800+ times faster than vanilla Transformer during evaluation. Additionally, we improve the state-of-the-art (SoTA) results of bpc/perplexity from 1.06 to 0.99 on enwiki8, from 1.13 to 1.08 on text8, from 20.5 to 18.3 on WikiText-103, from 23.7 to 21.8 on One Billion Word, and from 55.3 to 54.5 on Penn Treebank (without finetuning). Our code, pretrained models, and hyperparameters are available in both Tensorflow and PyTorch.

January 08, 2019
FIGR: Few-shot Image Generation with Reptile
Louis Clouâtre, Marc Demers

Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) boast impressive capacity to generate realistic images. However, like much of the field of deep learning, they require an inordinate amount of data to produce results, thereby limiting their usefulness in generating novelty. In the same vein, recent advances in meta-learning have opened the door to many few-shot learning applications. In the present work, we propose Few-shot Image Generation using Reptile (FIGR), a GAN meta-trained with Reptile. Our model successfully generates novel images on both MNIST and Omniglot with as little as 4 images from an unseen class. We further contribute FIGR-8, a new dataset for few-shot image generation, which contains 1,548,944 icons categorized in over 18,409 classes. Trained on FIGR-8, initial results show that our model can generalize to more advanced concepts (such as "bird" and "knife") from as few as 8 samples from a previously unseen class of images and as little as 10 training steps through those 8 images. This work demonstrates the potential of training a GAN for few-shot image generation and aims to set a new benchmark for future work in the domain.

On the Capabilities and Limitations of Reasoning for Natural Language Understanding
Daniel Khashabi, Erfan Sadeqi Azer, Tushar Khot, Ashish Sabharwal, Dan Roth

Recent systems for natural language understanding are strong at overcoming linguistic variability for lookup style reasoning. Yet, their accuracy drops dramatically as the number of reasoning steps increases. We present the first formal framework to study such empirical observations, addressing the ambiguity, redundancy, incompleteness, and inaccuracy that the use of language introduces when representing a hidden conceptual space. Our formal model uses two interrelated spaces: a conceptual meaning space that is unambiguous and complete but hidden, and a linguistic symbol space that captures a noisy grounding of the meaning space in the symbols or words of a language. We apply this framework to study the connectivity problem in undirected graphs---a core reasoning problem that forms the basis for more complex multi-hop reasoning. We show that it is indeed possible to construct a high-quality algorithm for detecting connectivity in the (latent) meaning graph, based on an observed noisy symbol graph, as long as the noise is below our quantified noise level and only a few hops are needed. On the other hand, we also prove an impossibility result: if a query requires a large number (specifically, logarithmic in the size of the meaning graph) of hops, no reasoning system operating over the symbol graph is likely to recover any useful property of the meaning graph. This highlights a fundamental barrier for a class of reasoning problems and systems, and suggests the need to limit the distance between the two spaces, rather than investing in multi-hop reasoning with "many" hops.

Generalization in Deep Networks: The Role of Distance from Initialization
Vaishnavh Nagarajan, J. Zico Kolter

Why does training deep neural networks using stochastic gradient descent (SGD) result in a generalization error that does not worsen with the number of parameters in the network? To answer this question, we advocate a notion of effective model capacity that is dependent on {\em a given random initialization of the network} and not just the training algorithm and the data distribution. We provide empirical evidences that demonstrate that the model capacity of SGD-trained deep networks is in fact restricted through implicit regularization of {\em the $\ell_2$ distance from the initialization}. We also provide theoretical arguments that further highlight the need for initialization-dependent notions of model capacity. We leave as open questions how and why distance from initialization is regularized, and whether it is sufficient to explain generalization.

Keeping CALM: When Distributed Consistency is Easy
Joseph M. Hellerstein, Peter Alvaro

A key concern in modern distributed systems is to avoid the cost of coordination while maintaining consistent semantics. Until recently, there was no answer to the question of when coordination is actually required. In this paper we present an informal introduction to the CALM Theorem, which answers this question precisely by moving up from traditional storage consistency to consider properties of programs. CALM is an acronym for "consistency as logical monotonicity". The CALM Theorem shows that the programs that have consistent, coordination-free distributed implementations are exactly the programs that can be expressed in monotonic logic. This theoretical result has practical implications for developers of distributed applications. We show how CALM provides a constructive application-level counterpart to conventional "systems" wisdom, such as the apparently negative results of the CAP Theorem. We also discuss ways that monotonic thinking can influence distributed systems design, and how new programming language designs and tools can help developers write consistent, coordination-free code.

Looking Back at Postgres
Joseph M. Hellerstein

This is a recollection of the UC Berkeley Postgres project, which was led by Mike Stonebraker from the mid-1980's to the mid-1990's. The article was solicited for Stonebraker's Turing Award book, as one of many personal/historical recollections. As a result it focuses on Stonebraker's design ideas and leadership. But Stonebraker was never a coder, and he stayed out of the way of his development team. The Postgres codebase was the work of a team of brilliant students and the occasional university "staff programmers" who had little more experience (and only slightly more compensation) than the students. I was lucky to join that team as a student during the latter years of the project. I got helpful input on this writeup from some of the more senior students on the project, but any errors or omissions are mine. If you spot any such, please contact me and I will try to fix them.

January 03, 2019
A Unified Theory of Early Visual Representations from Retina to Cortex through Anatomically Constrained Deep CNNs
Jack Lindsey, Samuel A. Ocko, Surya Ganguli, Stephane Deny

The visual system is hierarchically organized to process visual information in successive stages. Neural representations vary drastically across the first stages of visual processing: at the output of the retina, ganglion cell receptive fields (RFs) exhibit a clear antagonistic center-surround structure, whereas in the primary visual cortex, typical RFs are sharply tuned to a precise orientation. There is currently no unified theory explaining these differences in representations across layers. Here, using a deep convolutional neural network trained on image recognition as a model of the visual system, we show that such differences in representation can emerge as a direct consequence of different neural resource constraints on the retinal and cortical networks, and we find a single model from which both geometries spontaneously emerge at the appropriate stages of visual processing. The key constraint is a reduced number of neurons at the retinal output, consistent with the anatomy of the optic nerve as a stringent bottleneck. Second, we find that, for simple cortical networks, visual representations at the retinal output emerge as nonlinear and lossy feature detectors, whereas they emerge as linear and faithful encoders of the visual scene for more complex cortices. This result predicts that the retinas of small vertebrates should perform sophisticated nonlinear computations, extracting features directly relevant to behavior, whereas retinas of large animals such as primates should mostly encode the visual scene linearly and respond to a much broader range of stimuli. These predictions could reconcile the two seemingly incompatible views of the retina as either performing feature extraction or efficient coding of natural scenes, by suggesting that all vertebrates lie on a spectrum between these two objectives, depending on the degree of neural resources allocated to their visual system.

A Comprehensive Survey on Graph Neural Networks
Zonghan Wu, Shirui Pan, Fengwen Chen, Guodong Long, Chengqi Zhang, Philip S. Yu

Deep learning has revolutionized many machine learning tasks in recent years, ranging from image classification and video processing to speech recognition and natural language understanding. The data in these tasks are typically represented in the Euclidean space. However, there is an increasing number of applications where data are generated from non-Euclidean domains and are represented as graphs with complex relationships and interdependency between objects. The complexity of graph data has imposed significant challenges on existing machine learning algorithms. Recently, many studies on extending deep learning approaches for graph data have emerged. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive overview of graph neural networks (GNNs) in data mining and machine learning fields. We propose a new taxonomy to divide the state-of-the-art graph neural networks into different categories. With a focus on graph convolutional networks, we review alternative architectures that have recently been developed; these learning paradigms include graph attention networks, graph autoencoders, graph generative networks, and graph spatial-temporal networks. We further discuss the applications of graph neural networks across various domains and summarize the open source codes and benchmarks of the existing algorithms on different learning tasks. Finally, we propose potential research directions in this fast-growing field.

January 02, 2019
Elimination of All Bad Local Minima in Deep Learning
Kenji Kawaguchi, Leslie Pack Kaelbling

In this paper, we theoretically prove that we can eliminate all suboptimal local minima by adding one neuron per output unit to any deep neural network, for multi-class classification, binary classification, and regression with an arbitrary loss function. At every local minimum of any deep neural network with added neurons, the set of parameters of the original neural network (without added neurons) is guaranteed to be a global minimum of the original neural network. The effects of the added neurons are proven to automatically vanish at every local minimum. Unlike many related results in the literature, our theoretical results are directly applicable to common deep learning tasks because the results only rely on the assumptions that automatically hold in the common tasks. Moreover, we discuss several limitations in eliminating the suboptimal local minima in this manner by providing additional theoretical results and several examples.

December 30, 2018
A Geometric Theory of Higher-Order Automatic Differentiation
Michael Betancourt

First-order automatic differentiation is a ubiquitous tool across statistics, machine learning, and computer science. Higher-order implementations of automatic differentiation, however, have yet to realize the same utility. In this paper I derive a comprehensive, differential geometric treatment of automatic differentiation that naturally identifies the higher-order differential operators amenable to automatic differentiation as well as explicit procedures that provide a scaffolding for high-performance implementations.

December 28, 2018
Dynamic Planning Networks
Norman Tasfi, Miriam Capretz

We introduce Dynamic Planning Networks (DPN), a novel architecture for deep reinforcement learning, that combines model-based and model-free aspects for online planning. Our architecture learns to dynamically construct plans using a learned state-transition model by selecting and traversing between simulated states and actions to maximize valuable information before acting. In contrast to model-free methods, model-based planning lets the agent efficiently test action hypotheses without performing costly trial-and-error in the environment. DPN learns to efficiently form plans by expanding a single action-conditional state transition at a time instead of exhaustively evaluating each action, reducing the required number of state-transitions during planning by up to 96%. We observe various emergent planning patterns used to solve environments, including classical search methods such as breadth-first and depth-first search. Learning To Plan shows improved data efficiency, performance, and generalization to new and unseen domains in comparison to several baselines.

InstaGAN: Instance-aware Image-to-Image Translation
Sangwoo Mo, Minsu Cho, Jinwoo Shin

Unsupervised image-to-image translation has gained considerable attention due to the recent impressive progress based on generative adversarial networks (GANs). However, previous methods often fail in challenging cases, in particular, when an image has multiple target instances and a translation task involves significant changes in shape, e.g., translating pants to skirts in fashion images. To tackle the issues, we propose a novel method, coined instance-aware GAN (InstaGAN), that incorporates the instance information (e.g., object segmentation masks) and improves multi-instance transfiguration. The proposed method translates both an image and the corresponding set of instance attributes while maintaining the permutation invariance property of the instances. To this end, we introduce a context preserving loss that encourages the network to learn the identity function outside of target instances. We also propose a sequential mini-batch inference/training technique that handles multiple instances with a limited GPU memory and enhances the network to generalize better for multiple instances. Our comparative evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method on different image datasets, in particular, in the aforementioned challenging cases.

December 27, 2018
Robustness to Out-of-Distribution Inputs via Task-Aware Generative Uncertainty
Rowan McAllister, Gregory Kahn, Jeff Clune, Sergey Levine

Deep learning provides a powerful tool for machine perception when the observations resemble the training data. However, real-world robotic systems must react intelligently to their observations even in unexpected circumstances. This requires a system to reason about its own uncertainty given unfamiliar, out-of-distribution observations. Approximate Bayesian approaches are commonly used to estimate uncertainty for neural network predictions, but can struggle with out-of-distribution observations. Generative models can in principle detect out-of-distribution observations as those with a low estimated density. However, the mere presence of an out-of-distribution input does not by itself indicate an unsafe situation. In this paper, we present a method for uncertainty-aware robotic perception that combines generative modeling and model uncertainty to cope with uncertainty stemming from out-of-distribution states. Our method estimates an uncertainty measure about the model's prediction, taking into account an explicit (generative) model of the observation distribution to handle out-of-distribution inputs. This is accomplished by probabilistically projecting observations onto the training distribution, such that out-of-distribution inputs map to uncertain in-distribution observations, which in turn produce uncertain task-related predictions, but only if task-relevant parts of the image change. We evaluate our method on an action-conditioned collision prediction task with both simulated and real data, and demonstrate that our method of projecting out-of-distribution observations improves the performance of four standard Bayesian and non-Bayesian neural network approaches, offering more favorable trade-offs between the proportion of time a robot can remain autonomous and the proportion of impending crashes successfully avoided.