August 19, 2019
GLAMpoints: Greedily Learned Accurate Match points
Prune Truong, Stefanos Apostolopoulos, Agata Mosinska, Samuel Stucky, Carlos Ciller, Sandro De Zanet

We introduce a novel CNN-based feature point detector - GLAMpoints - learned in a semi-supervised manner. Our detector extracts repeatable, stable interest points with a dense coverage, specifically designed to maximize the correct matching in a specific domain, which is in contrast to conventional techniques that optimize indirect metrics. In this paper, we apply our method on challenging retinal slitlamp images, for which classical detectors yield unsatisfactory results due to low image quality and insufficient amount of low-level features. We show that GLAMpoints significantly outperforms classical detectors as well as state-of-the-art CNN-based methods in matching and registration quality for retinal images.

August 15, 2019
Towards Automated Machine Learning: Evaluation and Comparison of AutoML Approaches and Tools
Anh Truong, Austin Walters, Jeremy Goodsitt, Keegan Hines, Bayan Bruss, Reza Farivar

There has been considerable growth and interest in industrial applications of machine learning (ML) in recent years. ML engineers, as a consequence, are in high demand across the industry, yet improving the efficiency of ML engineers remains a fundamental challenge. Automated machine learning (AutoML) has emerged as a way to save time and effort on repetitive tasks in ML pipelines, such as data pre-processing, feature engineering, model selection, hyperparameter optimization, and prediction result analysis. In this paper, we investigate the current state of AutoML tools aiming to automate these tasks. We conduct various evaluations of the tools on many datasets, in different data segments, to examine their performance, and compare their advantages and disadvantages on different test cases.

August 14, 2019
On The Evaluation of Machine Translation Systems Trained With Back-Translation
Sergey Edunov, Myle Ott, Marc'Aurelio Ranzato, Michael Auli

Back-translation is a widely used data augmentation technique which leverages target monolingual data. However, its effectiveness has been challenged since automatic metrics such as BLEU only show significant improvements for test examples where the source itself is a translation, or translationese. This is believed to be due to translationese inputs better matching the back-translated training data. In this work, we show that this conjecture is not empirically supported and that back-translation improves translation quality of both naturally occurring text as well as translationese according to professional human translators. We provide empirical evidence to support the view that back-translation is preferred by humans because it produces more fluent outputs. BLEU cannot capture human preferences because references are translationese when source sentences are natural text. We recommend complementing BLEU with a language model score to measure fluency.

Unconstrained Monotonic Neural Networks
Antoine Wehenkel, Gilles Louppe

Monotonic neural networks have recently been proposed as a way to define invertible transformations. These transformations can be combined into powerful autoregressive flows that have been shown to be universal approximators of continuous probability distributions. Architectures that ensure monotonicity typically enforce constraints on weights and activation functions, which enables invertibility but leads to a cap on the expressiveness of the resulting transformations. In this work, we propose the Unconstrained Monotonic Neural Network (UMNN) architecture based on the insight that a function is monotonic as long as its derivative is strictly positive. In particular, this latter condition can be enforced with a free-form neural network whose only constraint is the positiveness of its output. We evaluate our new invertible building block within a new autoregressive flow (UMNN-MAF) and demonstrate its effectiveness on density estimation experiments. We also illustrate the ability of UMNNs to improve variational inference.

August 13, 2019
Attention is not not Explanation
Sarah Wiegreffe, Yuval Pinter

Attention mechanisms play a central role in NLP systems, especially within recurrent neural network (RNN) models. Recently, there has been increasing interest in whether or not the intermediate representations offered by these modules may be used to explain the reasoning for a model's prediction, and consequently reach insights regarding the model's decision-making process. A recent paper claims that `Attention is not Explanation' (Jain and Wallace, 2019). We challenge many of the assumptions underlying this work, arguing that such a claim depends on one's definition of explanation, and that testing it needs to take into account all elements of the model, using a rigorous experimental design. We propose four alternative tests to determine when/whether attention can be used as explanation: a simple uniform-weights baseline; a variance calibration based on multiple random seed runs; a diagnostic framework using frozen weights from pretrained models; and an end-to-end adversarial attention training protocol. Each allows for meaningful interpretation of attention mechanisms in RNN models. We show that even when reliable adversarial distributions can be found, they don't perform well on the simple diagnostic, indicating that prior work does not disprove the usefulness of attention mechanisms for explainability.

Multi-Agent Manipulation via Locomotion using Hierarchical Sim2Real
Ofir Nachum, Michael Ahn, Hugo Ponte, Shixiang Gu, Vikash Kumar

Manipulation and locomotion are closely related problems that are often studied in isolation. In this work, we study the problem of coordinating multiple mobile agents to exhibit manipulation behaviors using a reinforcement learning (RL) approach. Our method hinges on the use of hierarchical sim2real -- a simulated environment is used to learn low-level goal-reaching skills, which are then used as the action space for a high-level RL controller, also trained in simulation. The full hierarchical policy is then transferred to the real world in a zero-shot fashion. The application of domain randomization during training enables the learned behaviors to generalize to real-world settings, while the use of hierarchy provides a modular paradigm for learning and transferring increasingly complex behaviors. We evaluate our method on a number of real-world tasks, including coordinated object manipulation in a multi-agent setting. See videos at https://sites.google.com/view/manipulation-via-locomotion

Predicting 3D Human Dynamics from Video
Jason Y. Zhang, Panna Felsen, Angjoo Kanazawa, Jitendra Malik

Given a video of a person in action, we can easily guess the 3D future motion of the person. In this work, we present perhaps the first approach for predicting a future 3D mesh model sequence of a person from past video input. We do this for periodic motions such as walking and also actions like bowling and squatting seen in sports or workout videos. While there has been a surge of future prediction problems in computer vision, most approaches predict 3D future from 3D past or 2D future from 2D past inputs. In this work, we focus on the problem of predicting 3D future motion from past image sequences, which has a plethora of practical applications in autonomous systems that must operate safely around people from visual inputs. Inspired by the success of autoregressive models in language modeling tasks, we learn an intermediate latent space on which we predict the future. This effectively facilitates autoregressive predictions when the input differs from the output domain. Our approach can be trained on video sequences obtained in-the-wild without 3D ground truth labels. The project website with videos can be found at https://jasonyzhang.com/phd.

Reward Tampering Problems and Solutions in Reinforcement Learning: A Causal Influence Diagram Perspective
Tom Everitt, Marcus Hutter

Can an arbitrarily intelligent reinforcement learning agent be kept under control by a human user? Or do agents with sufficient intelligence inevitably find ways to shortcut their reward signal? This question impacts how far reinforcement learning can be scaled, and whether alternative paradigms must be developed in order to build safe artificial general intelligence. In this paper, we use an intuitive yet precise graphical model called causal influence diagrams to formalize reward tampering problems. We also describe a number of tweaks to the reinforcement learning objective that prevent incentives for reward tampering. We verify the solutions using recently developed graphical criteria for inferring agent incentives from causal influence diagrams.

August 12, 2019
On the Validity of Self-Attention as Explanation in Transformer Models
Gino Brunner, Yang Liu, Damián Pascual, Oliver Richter, Roger Wattenhofer

Explainability of deep learning systems is a vital requirement for many applications. However, it is still an unsolved problem. Recent self-attention based models for natural language processing, such as the Transformer or BERT, offer hope of greater explainability by providing attention maps that can be directly inspected. Nevertheless, by just looking at the attention maps one often overlooks that the attention is not over words but over hidden embeddings, which themselves can be mixed representations of multiple embeddings. We investigate to what extent the implicit assumption made in many recent papers - that hidden embeddings at all layers still correspond to the underlying words - is justified. We quantify how much embeddings are mixed based on a gradient based attribution method and find that already after the first layer less than 50% of the embedding is attributed to the underlying word, declining thereafter to a median contribution of 7.5% in the last layer. While throughout the layers the underlying word remains as the one contributing most to the embedding, we argue that attention visualizations are misleading and should be treated with care when explaining the underlying deep learning system.

Neural Text Generation with Unlikelihood Training
Sean Welleck, Ilia Kulikov, Stephen Roller, Emily Dinan, Kyunghyun Cho, Jason Weston

Neural text generation is a key tool in natural language applications, but it is well known there are major problems at its core. In particular, standard likelihood training and decoding leads to dull and repetitive responses. While some post-hoc fixes have been proposed, in particular top-k and nucleus sampling, they do not address the fact that the token-level probabilities predicted by the model itself are poor. In this paper we show that the likelihood objective itself is at fault, resulting in a model that assigns too much probability to sequences that contain repeats and frequent words unlike the human training distribution. We propose a new objective, unlikelihood training, which forces unlikely generations to be assigned lower probability by the model. We show that both token and sequence level unlikelihood training give less repetitive, less dull text while maintaining perplexity, giving far superior generations using standard greedy or beam search. Our approach provides a strong alternative to traditional training.

Superstition in the Network: Deep Reinforcement Learning Plays Deceptive Games
Philip Bontrager, Ahmed Khalifa, Damien Anderson, Matthew Stephenson, Christoph Salge, Julian Togelius

Deep reinforcement learning has learned to play many games well, but failed on others. To better characterize the modes and reasons of failure of deep reinforcement learners, we test the widely used Asynchronous Actor-Critic (A2C) algorithm on four deceptive games, which are specially designed to provide challenges to game-playing agents. These games are implemented in the General Video Game AI framework, which allows us to compare the behavior of reinforcement learning-based agents with planning agents based on tree search. We find that several of these games reliably deceive deep reinforcement learners, and that the resulting behavior highlights the shortcomings of the learning algorithm. The particular ways in which agents fail differ from how planning-based agents fail, further illuminating the character of these algorithms. We propose an initial typology of deceptions which could help us better understand pitfalls and failure modes of (deep) reinforcement learning.

August 09, 2019
A practical guide to methodological considerations in the controllability of structural brain networks
Teresa M. Karrer, Jason Z. Kim, Jennifer Stiso, Ari E. Kahn, Fabio Pasqualetti, Ute Habel, Danielle S. Bassett

Predicting how the brain can be driven to specific states by means of internal or external control requires a fundamental understanding of the relationship between neural connectivity and activity. Network control theory is a powerful tool from the physical and engineering sciences that can provide insights regarding that relationship; it formalizes the study of how the dynamics of a complex system can arise from its underlying structure of interconnected units. Given the recent use of network control theory in neuroscience, it is now timely to offer a practical guide to methodological considerations in the controllability of structural brain networks. Here we provide a systematic overview of the framework, examine the impact of modeling choices on frequently studied control metrics, and suggest potentially useful theoretical extensions. We ground our discussions, numerical demonstrations, and theoretical advances in a dataset of high-resolution diffusion imaging with 730 diffusion directions acquired over approximately 1 hour of scanning from ten healthy young adults. Following a didactic introduction of the theory, we probe how a selection of modeling choices affects four common statistics: average controllability, modal controllability, minimum control energy, and optimal control energy. Next, we extend the current state of the art in two ways: first, by developing an alternative measure of structural connectivity that accounts for radial propagation of activity through abutting tissue, and second, by defining a complementary metric quantifying the complexity of the energy landscape of a system. We close with specific modeling recommendations and a discussion of methodological constraints.

Star-convex Polyhedra for 3D Object Detection and Segmentation in Microscopy
Martin Weigert, Uwe Schmidt, Robert Haase, Ko Sugawara, Gene Myers

Accurate detection and segmentation of cell nuclei in volumetric (3D) fluorescence microscopy datasets is an important step in many biomedical research projects. Although many automated methods for these tasks exist, they often struggle for images with low signal-to-noise ratios and/or dense packing of nuclei. It was recently shown for 2D microscopy images that these issues can be alleviated by training a neural network to directly predict a suitable shape representation (star-convex polygon) for cell nuclei. In this paper, we adopt and extend this approach to 3D volumes by using star-convex polyhedra to represent cell nuclei and similar shapes. To that end, we overcome the challenges of 1) finding parameter-efficient star-convex polyhedra representations that can faithfully describe cell nuclei shapes, 2) adapting to anisotropic voxel sizes often found in fluorescence microscopy datasets, and 3) efficiently computing intersections between pairs of star-convex polyhedra (required for non-maximum suppression). Although our approach is quite general, since star-convex polyhedra subsume common shapes like bounding boxes and spheres as special cases, our focus is on accurate detection and segmentation of cell nuclei. That that end, we demonstrate on two challenging datasets that our approach (StarDist-3D) leads to superior results when compared to classical and deep-learning based methods.

Bayesian Inference for Large Scale Image Classification
Jonathan Heek, Nal Kalchbrenner

Bayesian inference promises to ground and improve the performance of deep neural networks. It promises to be robust to overfitting, to simplify the training procedure and the space of hyperparameters, and to provide a calibrated measure of uncertainty that can enhance decision making, agent exploration and prediction fairness. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods enable Bayesian inference by generating samples from the posterior distribution over model parameters. Despite the theoretical advantages of Bayesian inference and the similarity between MCMC and optimization methods, the performance of sampling methods has so far lagged behind optimization methods for large scale deep learning tasks. We aim to fill this gap and introduce ATMC, an adaptive noise MCMC algorithm that estimates and is able to sample from the posterior of a neural network. ATMC dynamically adjusts the amount of momentum and noise applied to each parameter update in order to compensate for the use of stochastic gradients. We use a ResNet architecture without batch normalization to test ATMC on the Cifar10 benchmark and the large scale ImageNet benchmark and show that, despite the absence of batch normalization, ATMC outperforms a strong optimization baseline in terms of both classification accuracy and test log-likelihood. We show that ATMC is intrinsically robust to overfitting on the training data and that ATMC provides a better calibrated measure of uncertainty compared to the optimization baseline.

VisualBERT: A Simple and Performant Baseline for Vision and Language
Liunian Harold Li, Mark Yatskar, Da Yin, Cho-Jui Hsieh, Kai-Wei Chang

We propose VisualBERT, a simple and flexible framework for modeling a broad range of vision-and-language tasks. VisualBERT consists of a stack of Transformer layers that implicitly align elements of an input text and regions in an associated input image with self-attention. We further propose two visually-grounded language model objectives for pre-training VisualBERT on image caption data. Experiments on four vision-and-language tasks including VQA, VCR, NLVR2, and Flickr30K show that VisualBERT outperforms or rivals with state-of-the-art models while being significantly simpler. Further analysis demonstrates that VisualBERT can ground elements of language to image regions without any explicit supervision and is even sensitive to syntactic relationships, tracking, for example, associations between verbs and image regions corresponding to their arguments.

Behaviour Suite for Reinforcement Learning
Ian Osband, Yotam Doron, Matteo Hessel, John Aslanides, Eren Sezener, Andre Saraiva, Katrina McKinney, Tor Lattimore, Csaba Szepezvari, Satinder Singh, Benjamin Van Roy, Richard Sutton, David Silver, Hado Van Hasselt

This paper introduces the Behaviour Suite for Reinforcement Learning, or bsuite for short. bsuite is a collection of carefully-designed experiments that investigate core capabilities of reinforcement learning (RL) agents with two objectives. First, to collect clear, informative and scalable problems that capture key issues in the design of general and efficient learning algorithms. Second, to study agent behaviour through their performance on these shared benchmarks. To complement this effort, we open source github.com/deepmind/bsuite, which automates evaluation and analysis of any agent on bsuite. This library facilitates reproducible and accessible research on the core issues in RL, and ultimately the design of superior learning algorithms. Our code is Python, and easy to use within existing projects. We include examples with OpenAI Baselines, Dopamine as well as new reference implementations. Going forward, we hope to incorporate more excellent experiments from the research community, and commit to a periodic review of bsuite from a committee of prominent researchers.

August 08, 2019
On the Variance of the Adaptive Learning Rate and Beyond
Liyuan Liu, Haoming Jiang, Pengcheng He, Weizhu Chen, Xiaodong Liu, Jianfeng Gao, Jiawei Han

The learning rate warmup heuristic achieves remarkable success in stabilizing training, accelerating convergence and improving generalization for adaptive stochastic optimization algorithms like RMSprop and Adam. Here, we study its mechanism in details. Pursuing the theory behind warmup, we identify a problem of the adaptive learning rate (i.e., it has problematically large variance in the early stage), suggest warmup works as a variance reduction technique, and provide both empirical and theoretical evidence to verify our hypothesis. We further propose RAdam, a new variant of Adam, by introducing a term to rectify the variance of the adaptive learning rate. Extensive experimental results on image classification, language modeling, and neural machine translation verify our intuition and demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our proposed method. All implementations are available at: https://github.com/LiyuanLucasLiu/RAdam.

August 06, 2019
ViLBERT: Pretraining Task-Agnostic Visiolinguistic Representations for Vision-and-Language Tasks
Jiasen Lu, Dhruv Batra, Devi Parikh, Stefan Lee

We present ViLBERT (short for Vision-and-Language BERT), a model for learning task-agnostic joint representations of image content and natural language. We extend the popular BERT architecture to a multi-modal two-stream model, pro-cessing both visual and textual inputs in separate streams that interact through co-attentional transformer layers. We pretrain our model through two proxy tasks on the large, automatically collected Conceptual Captions dataset and then transfer it to multiple established vision-and-language tasks -- visual question answering, visual commonsense reasoning, referring expressions, and caption-based image retrieval -- by making only minor additions to the base architecture. We observe significant improvements across tasks compared to existing task-specific models -- achieving state-of-the-art on all four tasks. Our work represents a shift away from learning groundings between vision and language only as part of task training and towards treating visual grounding as a pretrainable and transferable capability.

August 03, 2019
Word2vec to behavior: morphology facilitates the grounding of language in machines
David Matthews, Sam Kriegman, Collin Cappelle, Josh Bongard

Enabling machines to respond appropriately to natural language commands could greatly expand the number of people to whom they could be of service. Recently, advances in neural network-trained word embeddings have empowered non-embodied text-processing algorithms, and suggest they could be of similar utility for embodied machines. Here we introduce a method that does so by training robots to act similarly to semantically-similar word2vec encoded commands. We show that this enables them to act appropriately, after training, to previously-unheard commands. Finally, we show that inducing such an alignment between motoric and linguistic similarities can be facilitated or hindered by the mechanical structure of the robot. This points to future, large scale methods that find and exploit relationships between action, language, and robot structure.

Kannada-MNIST: A new handwritten digits dataset for the Kannada language
Vinay Uday Prabhu

In this paper, we disseminate a new handwritten digits-dataset, termed Kannada-MNIST, for the Kannada script, that can potentially serve as a direct drop-in replacement for the original MNIST dataset. In addition to this dataset, we disseminate an additional real world handwritten dataset (with $10k$ images), which we term as the Dig-MNIST dataset that can serve as an out-of-domain test dataset. We also duly open source all the code as well as the raw scanned images along with the scanner settings so that researchers who want to try out different signal processing pipelines can perform end-to-end comparisons. We provide high level morphological comparisons with the MNIST dataset and provide baselines accuracies for the dataset disseminated. The initial baselines obtained using an oft-used CNN architecture ($96.8\%$ for the main test-set and $76.1\%$ for the Dig-MNIST test-set) indicate that these datasets do provide a sterner challenge with regards to generalizability than MNIST or the KMNIST datasets. We also hope this dissemination will spur the creation of similar datasets for all the languages that use different symbols for the numeral digits.

August 02, 2019
AutoML: A Survey of the State-of-the-Art
Xin He, Kaiyong Zhao, Xiaowen Chu

Deep learning has penetrated all aspects of our lives and brought us great convenience. However, the process of building a high-quality deep learning system for a specific task is not only time-consuming but also requires lots of resources and relies on human expertise, which hinders the development of deep learning in both industry and academia. To alleviate this problem, a growing number of research projects focus on automated machine learning (AutoML). In this paper, we provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study on the state-of-the-art AutoML. First, we introduce the AutoML techniques in details according to the machine learning pipeline. Then we summarize existing Neural Architecture Search (NAS) research, which is one of the most popular topics in AutoML. We also compare the models generated by NAS algorithms with those human-designed models. Finally, we present several open problems for future research.

July 31, 2019
On Mutual Information Maximization for Representation Learning
Michael Tschannen, Josip Djolonga, Paul K. Rubenstein, Sylvain Gelly, Mario Lucic

Many recent methods for unsupervised or self-supervised representation learning train feature extractors by maximizing an estimate of the mutual information (MI) between different views of the data. This comes with several immediate problems: For example, MI is notoriously hard to estimate, and using it as an objective for representation learning may lead to highly entangled representations due to its invariance under arbitrary invertible transformations. Nevertheless, these methods have been repeatedly shown to excel in practice. In this paper we argue, and provide empirical evidence, that the success of these methods might be only loosely attributed to the properties of MI, and that they strongly depend on the inductive bias in both the choice of feature extractor architectures and the parametrization of the employed MI estimators. Finally, we establish a connection to deep metric learning and argue that this interpretation may be a plausible explanation for the success of the recently introduced methods.

July 29, 2019
Joey NMT: A Minimalist NMT Toolkit for Novices
Julia Kreutzer, Joost Bastings, Stefan Riezler

We present Joey NMT, a minimalist neural machine translation toolkit based on PyTorch that is specifically designed for novices. Joey NMT provides many popular NMT features in a small and simple code base, so that novices can easily and quickly learn to use it and adapt it to their needs. Despite its focus on simplicity, Joey NMT supports classic architectures (RNNs, transformers), fast beam search, weight tying, and more, and achieves performance comparable to more complex toolkits on standard benchmarks. We evaluate the accessibility of our toolkit in a user study where novices with general knowledge about Pytorch and NMT and experts work through a self-contained Joey NMT tutorial, showing that novices perform almost as well as experts in a subsequent code quiz. Joey NMT is available at https://github.com/joeynmt/joeynmt .

July 26, 2019
RoBERTa: A Robustly Optimized BERT Pretraining Approach
Yinhan Liu, Myle Ott, Naman Goyal, Jingfei Du, Mandar Joshi, Danqi Chen, Omer Levy, Mike Lewis, Luke Zettlemoyer, Veselin Stoyanov

Language model pretraining has led to significant performance gains but careful comparison between different approaches is challenging. Training is computationally expensive, often done on private datasets of different sizes, and, as we will show, hyperparameter choices have significant impact on the final results. We present a replication study of BERT pretraining (Devlin et al., 2019) that carefully measures the impact of many key hyperparameters and training data size. We find that BERT was significantly undertrained, and can match or exceed the performance of every model published after it. Our best model achieves state-of-the-art results on GLUE, RACE and SQuAD. These results highlight the importance of previously overlooked design choices, and raise questions about the source of recently reported improvements. We release our models and code.

Grape detection, segmentation and tracking using deep neural networks and three-dimensional association
Thiago T. Santos, Leonardo L. de Souza, Andreza A. dos Santos, Sandra Avila

Agricultural applications as yield prediction, precision agriculture and automated harvesting need systems able to infer the culture state from low cost sensing devices. Proximal sensing using affordable cameras combined to computer vision have seen a promising alternative, strengthened after the advent of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as an alternative for challenging pattern recognition problems in natural images. Considering fruit growing monitoring and automation, a fundamental problem is the detection, segmentation and counting of individual fruits in orchards. Here we show that for grape wines, a crop presenting large variability in shape, color, size and compactness, grape clusters can be successfully detected, segmented and tracked using state-of-the-art CNNs. In a dataset containing 408 grape clusters from images taken on field, we have reached a F1-score up to 0.91 for instance segmentation, a fine separation of each cluster from other structures in the image that allows a more accurate assessment of fruit size and shape. We have also shown as clusters can be identified and tracked along video sequences recording orchards rows. We also present a public dataset containing grape clusters properly annotated in 300 images and a novel annotation methodology for segmentation of complex objects in natural images. The presented pipeline for annotation, training, evaluation and tracking of agricultural patterns in images can be replicated for different crops and production systems. It can be employed on the development of sensing components for several agricultural and environmental applications.